Bio 150 genetic variation (idvividuals)

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153 Terms

1

Locus

Specific physical location on a chromosome where a gene is located

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2

Gene

Segment of DNA that contains instructions for making proteins or functional RNA modules

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3

Allele

Different versions or variants of a gene that can result in different traits

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4

Mutation

Change in the DNA sequence of a gene that can create new alleles or alter the function of existing alleles

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5

Protein

Large molecule made of amino acids that plays various roles in cell structure and function

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6

Haploid

Cell or organism with one complete set of chromosomes

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7

Diploid

Cell or organism with two complete sets of chromosomes

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8

Chromatin

Complex of DNA and protein found within the nucleus of eukaryotic cells that packages DNA into a more compact structure

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9

Chromosome

Thread-like structure made of DNA and proteins that carries genetic information

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10

Base sequence

Specific order of nucleotide bases (adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine) along a DNA molecule

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11

Gene expression

Process by which the information in a gene is used to synthesize a functional product, usually a protein or RNA module

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12

Regulation

Mechanisms that control when and how genes are turned on or off

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13

Genotype

All the information stored in an organism's cells

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14

Phenotype

Physical characteristics or traits of an organism

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15

Nonsense mutation

Mutation that changes a specific allele into a stop codon, potentially altering the physical aspects of an organism

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16

Missense mutation

Mutation that changes a specific allele into a different amino acid, potentially altering a physical aspect

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17

Deletion

Chromosomal rearrangement where a piece of a chromosome breaks off and is lost

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18

Duplication

Chromosomal rearrangement where a piece of a chromosome flips and reattaches, resulting in an extra copy

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19

Translocation

Chromosomal rearrangement where a piece of a chromosome breaks off and attaches to a different chromosome

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20

Inversion

Chromosomal rearrangement where a piece of a chromosome breaks off, flips, and reattaches in the opposite orientation

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21

Recombinant genotype

Genotype resulting from chromosomal segregation during meiosis, leading to new combinations of chromosomes

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22

Ploidy

Number of sets of chromosomes in a cell or organism

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23

Alternative splicing

Process of splicing different combinations of exons together to create multiple mature mRNA molecules from one gene

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24

DNA replication occurs

nucleus of a cell

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25

DNA to RNA transcription

During transcription, one strand of a DNA double helix serves as a template for assembling a single, complementary strand of RNA (a transcript)

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26

RNA to protein also known as ________

takes place in cytoplasm, mrna template used to build proteins from amino acids

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27

semi-conservative synthesis

Works like a template, original strand gets replicated

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28

Replication starts with the __________ of the double helix and __________ of new __________ strands on each of the separate DNA strands

unwinding, synthesis ,DNA

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29

In eukaryotes, transcription occurs in the

nucleus

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30

In eukaryotes, translation occurs

outside the nucleus

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31

introns and exons

Introns are removed from the mRNA sequence, while exons remain

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32

mRNA

messenger RNA; type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome

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33

Ribosome

Makes proteins

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34

Proteins

amino acids

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35

genetic code

The nucleotide triplets of DNA and RNA molecules that carry genetic information in living cells.

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36

Different cells transcribe different parts of the DNA also known as

differential gene expression

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37

RNA and _____ differ between cells, but the _______ in each cell is the same

proteins , DNA

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38

Complexity of organisms is a function of number of ______ and differential gene _______ and __________ splicing

genes, expression, alternative

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39

Phenotype

physical traits that are a product of the proteins produced

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40

Differences in _________ may cause differences in __________

genotype, phenotype

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41

Fitness

how well an organism can survive and reproduce in its environment

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42

Mutation creates ______

variation

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43

Mutations in DNA cause

Disorders, cancer, sometimes evolution

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44

true or false: all the mutations that occur in your body's cells are passed on to your offspring

False

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45

somatic cells

make up most of your body tissues and organs/ function

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46

somatic cells are divided by

mitosis

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47

germ cells

reproductive cells that give rise to sperm and ovum

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48

Mutations that occur in germ cells are passed on too_______

offspring

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49

Mitosis occurs in

somatic cells (body cells)

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50

Meiosis occurs in

germ cells aka sex cells

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51

Mitosis chromosomes line up

single file

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52

Meiosis chromosomes line up

double file

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53

Mitosis Daughter Cells are....

identical

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54

Meiosis daughter cells are

genetically different (due to crossing over)

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55

asexual reproduction

Process by which a single parent reproduces by itself

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56

Examples of asexual reproduction

bacteria, protists

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57

single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)

One base-pair variation in the genome sequence

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58

Null model of evolution

no change in gene pool across generations

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59

Evolution

change in allele frequencies in a population over time

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60

Allele

An alternative form of a gene.

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61

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium

population large, random mating, no mutation, no migration, no natural selection

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62

Microevolution

Change in allele frequencies in a population over generations.

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63

macroevolution

large-scale evolutionary changes that take place over long periods of time

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64

Heterozygotes often have greater _______ in variable environments

fitness

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65

frequency of heterozygous genotype is ________ with each generation of inbreeding

reduced

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66

How are new species formed?

when populations diverge enough to exhibit species level differences

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67

Ploidy

number of sets of chromosomes in a cell

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68

Taxon

group or level of organization into which organisms are classified

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69

typological thinking

based on the idea that species are unchanging types and that variations within species are unimportant or even misleading

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70

plato

typological thinking

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71

Aristotle

typological thinking + scale of nature

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72

Scale of Nature

fixed species on a continuum from simple to complex

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73

Lamarck

change through time and scale of nature

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74

Darwin and Wallace

Individuals in a population are different; species arise through the process of natural selection

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75

Evolution by natural selection

can be tested experimentally and observationally

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76

Darwin's observations

variation within population, variation passed to offspring, survival and reproduction are not random, organisms reproduce more than can survive

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77

Homologies

Similarities between organisms based on descent from a common ancestor.

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78

Homoplasy

convergent, or parallel, evolution, as when two species with very different evolutionary histories develop similar physical features as a result of adapting to a similar environment

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79

Speciation

the evolution of new species

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80

Natural selection components are variation within_________, some of the variation is __________, the variation affects ______________

populations, heritable, fitness

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81

directional selection

Form of natural selection in which the entire curve moves; occurs when individuals at one end of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end of the curve

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82

stabalizing selection

natural selection that favors average individuals in a population; results in a decline in population variation

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83

disruptive selection

form of natural selection in which a single curve splits into two; occurs when individuals at the upper and lower ends of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle

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84

not only survival of the fittest but ___________ of the fittest

reproduction

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85

Adaptation

traits good for the current environment

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86

when humans apply the principles of natural selection, we select for ___________ traits and shape of the populations over time, changes are _________ because we apply __________ pressure

particular, fast, high selection

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87

changes in allele frequency

-gene flow

-natural/sexual selection

-mutation

-genetic drift

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88

When has evolution occurred?

If the gene pool changes or if a new allele is introduce by a mutation

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89

genetic drift

A change in the allele frequency of a population as a result of chance events rather than natural selection. RANDOM

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90

bottleneck effect

A change in allele frequency following a dramatic reduction in the size of a population

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91

non-random mating

mating between individuals of the same phenotype or by those who live nearby

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92

non-random mating leads to no __________ frequency changes, but ___________ of heterozygotes

Allele, loss

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93

Emigration

movement of individuals out of a population

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94

Immigration

Movement of individuals into a population

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95

Individuals do not evolve, _______________ do.

populations

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96

Evolution is not for the ________ of a species

good

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97

Evolution is a response to the current environment and does not anticipate the _______

future

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98

Mutations are ________, natural selection is ________

random, not

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99

Genome

the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes

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100

Genes determine what?

character or traits are displayed

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