Sociology midterm

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shifting sociology from reform to theory

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shifting sociology from reform to theory

Talcott Parsons was influential in

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random sample

In a ________, everyone in the target population has the same chance of being included in the study.

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answer in their own words.

Open-ended questions are questions that respondents

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functionalists

In the eyes of _____, society is a whole unit, made up of interrelated parts that work together.

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Public sociology

_____ harnesses the sociological perspective for the benefit of the public.

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hypothesis

A ________ predicts a relationship between or among variables.

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social location.

The corners in life that people occupy because of their place in a society are referred to as

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An operational definition

________ is a precise way to measure a variable.

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hypothesis.

What you expect to find according to predictions from a theory is known as a(n)

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won the Nobel Prize for Peace.

Early sociologist and social reformer Jane Addams

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Herbert Spencer.

The phrase "survival of the fittest" was coined by

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stratified random sample

The ________ is drawn from selected subgroups of a target population.

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share the results.

The eighth and final step of the research model is to

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experimental group.

The subjects in an experiment who are exposed to the independent variable make up the

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class conflict.

Karl Marx believed that the engine of human history is

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Rapport

______ is a feeling of trust between researchers and the people they are studying.

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religion

According to Max Weber, the central force in social change is

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others.

In secondary analysis, researchers analyze data collected by

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dysfunction

Robert Merton used the term _____ for the harmful consequences of people's actions.

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neutral

If the questions that you ask the people taking part in your study are not ________, you will end up with biased answers.

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Clothing incorporating invisible computing items

What is smart clothing?

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subculture.

A world within the larger world of the dominant culture is a

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value contradiction

A _____ exists between the value of group superiority and the values of freedom, democracy, and equality.

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religiosity.

"In God We Trust" appears on American money. This reflects the core value of

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the norms and values that people actually follow.

The term real culture refers to

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pluralistic society.

A society made up of many different groups is called a(n)

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a value cluster that surrounds success.

Education, hard work, material comfort, and individualism can be said to be bound up in

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cultures become more and more similar to one another.

In cultural leveling

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ideal

The _____ culture refers to the values, norms, and goals that a group considers worth aiming for.

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Values are related to conditions of society.

Which statement about the origin of values is true?

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Cultural universals

_____ refer(s) to values, norms, or other cultural traits found everywhere.

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core values

Sociologists call values that are shared by most of the groups in a society

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Edward Wilson

_____ said that sociobiology will eventually absorb sociology.

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Everyone

Who is ethnocentric?

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biology is a basic cause of human behavior.

Sociobiologists believe that

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language.

The main way people communicate is through

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mores.

If you kill another person, you have violated a society's

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romantic love.

Most Americans feel that the only proper basis for marriage is

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counterculture

Some of the values and norms of a _____ place it at odds with the dominant culture.

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changed over the years, until today a college education is considered an appropriate goal for most Americans.

The core value of education has

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the later middle years

A fundamental shift in thinking—from the time since our birth to the time we have left to live—occurs in

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more than biology

Childhood really is

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end the same for everyone who enters that stage.

The later older years

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cuddled.

The Harlows took baby monkeys away from their mothers to live alone, frightened them, and observed that the babies clung to terrycloth fake mothers rather than wire fake mothers. The experiment intended to prove what might already have been obvious—that infants need to be

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mass media

The dilemma presented to women by _____ is that a model is thrust before them that is almost impossible to replicate in real life.

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we may be producing a generation of smart but mean children.

Concerning the effects of day care, researchers have found that

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Females are more underrepresented in video games than on television.

Which of the following statements about video games is true?

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latent

Unintended consequences of schools, or _____ functions, help the social system.

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agents of socialization.

Individuals and groups that influence our orientations to life are called

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symbolic interactionist.

George Herbert Mead was a(n)

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gender

Little Jo got dolls and jewelry for presents. Her brother, Joe, got action figures and toy guns. Such a division in toys and play give children _____ lessons.

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id

In Freud's psychoanalysis, the _____ causes us to seek self-gratification.

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Sigmund Freud.

Psychoanalysis was developed by

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virtually everyone.

In the United States, religion is important to

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Twins

_____ intrigue sociological researchers, particularly those separated at birth.

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a degradation ceremony.

An attempt to remake the self by stripping away an individual's current identity and stamping a new one in its place is

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Resocialization

_____ refers to learning new norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors to match a new situation in life.

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education's intended purpose

The manifest function of formal education refers to

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prison

A total institution leaves an indelible mark on a person's self. The mark can be imposed quickly or in a more prolonged process. In _____, the process is brutal and prolonged.

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men.

The sworn virgins of Albania are treated by people in their society as

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master status.

Aletha had an accident in which she fell into hot cooking grease. Despite many operations and treatments, her face, neck, and hands were forever altered. Regardless of her accomplishments or occupation, Aletha's disfigurement was viewed by many others as her

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social integration.

Emile Durkheim was interested in how societies united their members by shared values and other social bonds to produce

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back stages

According to Goffman's scheme, we have _____ where we can have some privacy and let our hair down.

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conflict within a role.

Role strain is

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our manner.

Sign-vehicles include

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Both conflict and order theorists

Who believes that social institutions were originally designed to meet basic survival needs?

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symbolic interactionists.

Microsociology is (was) the main focus of

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the influence of social class on their lives.

A billionaire and a person living on the street share

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the behaviors of the person change to match our expectations.

In a self-fulfilling stereotype

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need each other.

The term organic solidarity is based on the way that different members of society

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background

Ethnomethodologists explore _____ assumptions about how the world operates that underlie our behavior.

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It guides our behavior.

What is the sociological significance of social structure?

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interaction with others

The social construction of reality theory states that through our _____, we construct what for us is reality.

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dramaturgy

Erving Goffman used the term _____ to mean that social life is like a drama or a stage play.

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Roles

_____ lay(s) out what is expected of people.

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achieved status.

Ex-spouse, school dropout, and debarred lawyer are examples of

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mechanical solidarity

For Durkheim, _____ referred to the way that people who perform similar tasks develop a shared way of viewing life.

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ascribed

A(n) _____ status is involuntary.

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construct; nonsexual

At a vaginal examination, male doctors _____ social reality in order to define the examination as _____.

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religion.

Priest, minister, rabbi, and imam are examples of statuses associated with the social institution of

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the iron law of oligarchy.

The tendency of formal organizations to be dominated by a small, self-perpetuating elite is known as

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college women who are over six feet tall.

An example of a category is

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most

In Milgram's experiment, _____ of the students administering the shocks turned the lever all the way to "Danger: Severe Shock."

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six

Stanley Milgram's research led to the phrase "_____ degrees of separation."

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laissez-faire

An individual who leads by being highly permissive is a(n) _____ leader.

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an inner circle.

Many voluntary associations are controlled by

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downward; upward

According to Weber, in a bureaucracy, assignments flow _____ and accountability flows _____.

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triad.

A group of three people is known as a

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secondary groups.

Jeff is a financial advisor. He belongs to two different organizations for financial advisors, and he likes to go to their annual meetings. The financial organizations that Jeff belongs to are examples of

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coalition

In a _____, some members of a group align against others

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larger and more anonymous.

Secondary groups differ from primary groups in that secondary groups are

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The organization continues without skipping a beat

What happens when the head of a bureaucracy resigns, retires, or dies?

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instrumental

A(n) _____ leader keeps the group moving toward its goals.

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promotion

In the case of job _____, the bosses in many companies tend to groom workers who have winning characteristics similar to their own.

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Bureaucrats

Who is caring for us in the security state?

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alienation

Lu-Ellen worked in an office containing 100 cubicles. Few had windows, and those that did looked out on a parking lot. She felt very much a cog in a machine. But after work, Lu-Ellen and three or four friends out of the 100 cubicles often went out for a drink together. There she let her hair down and felt more human, and she and her coworkers got to know each other as people. In this manner, Lu-Ellen was resisting

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Group dynamics

_____ refer(s) to the ways that individuals affect groups, and the ways that groups influence individuals

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Social network

Which of the following might be likened to a spider's web?

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Six

How many relationships are possible in a group of four?

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is a leader.

Someone who influences other people

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