HOA Final Study Guide

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Major differences between New France and 13 Colonies

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Major differences between New France and 13 Colonies

New France could only trade with France 13 colonies would trade with England

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Albany Plan of Union

plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin in 1754 that aimed to unite the 13 colonies for trade, military, and other purposes; the plan was turned down by the colonies and the Crown

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Mercantilism

An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought

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George Washington

1st President of the United States; commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1732-1799)

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Outcomes of the French and Indian War

-Ended French power in North America -Britain gained Canada & all French lands east of the Mississippi River -France kept West Indies & islands in Gulf of St Lawrence -Spain gave Florida to Britain -Spain got lands west of the Mississippi & New Orleans

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end of salutary Neglect

After the French and Indian war, British thought that they should no longer leave the colonies alone, and tightened the mercantilisty policies as exemplified by the Proc. Of 1763, the Currency Act, the Sugar Act, and more.

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Proclamation of 1763

A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.

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Quartering Act of 1765

Act forcing colonists to house and supply British forces in the colonies; created more resentment; seen as assault on liberties.

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Sugar Act of 1763

This put a tax on sugar and molasses. It also increased the measures to enforce collection of the tax. It hurt merchants such as John Hancock who made their fortunes by smuggling in these goods. It began the feelings of no taxation without representation.

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Taxation without representation

the idea that it is unfair to tax someone without giving them a voice in government

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Stamp Act of 1765

law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc.

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External taxes

Taxes arose out of activities that originated outside of the colonies, such as cusotms duties. The Sugar Act was considered an external tax, because it only operated on goods imported into the colonies from overseas. Many colonists who objected to Parliament's "internal" taxes on the colonies felt that Parliament had the authority to levy external taxes on imported goods.

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Internal taxes, 1763-1775

Taxes which arose out of activities that occurred "internally" within the colonies. The Stamp Act was considered an internal tax, because it taxed the colonists on legal transactions they undertook locally. Many colonists and Englishmen felt that Parliament did not have the authority to levy internal taxes on the colonies, and that such tax should only be levied by the colonial assemblies.

  • The dispute over this was a fundamental source of contention between Britain and the colonies between 1763-1775.

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Sons of Liberty

A radical political organization for colonial independence which formed in 1765 after the passage of the Stamp Act. They incited riots and burned the customs houses where the stamped British paper was kept. After the repeal of the Stamp Act, many of the local chapters formed the Committees of Correspondence which continued to promote opposition to British policies towards the colonies. The Sons leaders included Samuel Adams and Paul Revere.

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Colonial Boycotts

In response to Stamp Acts. Didn't buy British goods. Merchants in Britain felt the loss, so Marquis of Rockingham repealed Stamp Act.

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Virtual Representation

British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members

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Townshend Duties

Popularly referred to as the Townshend Duties, the Revenue Act of 1767 taxed glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea entering the colonies. The colonists objected to the fact that the act was clearly designed to raise revenue exclusively for England rather than to regulate trade in a manner favorable to the entire British empire.

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Tea Act

1773 act which eliminated import tariffs on tea entering England and allowed the British East India Company to sell directly to consumers rather than through merchants. Led to the Boston Tea Party.

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Declaratory Act

Act passed in 1766 after the repeal of the stamp act

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Declaratory Act

stated that parliament had the authority over the colonies and the right to tax and pass legislation “in all cases” whatsoever

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Boston Massacre

The first bloodshed of the American Revolution (1770), as British guards at the Boston Customs House opened fire on a crowd killing five Americans

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Role of Women in Protests

  • Helped to replace goods that were being boycotted

  • Joined as nurses

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Boston Tea Party

A 1773 protest against British taxes in which Boston colonists disguised as Mohawks dumped valuable tea into Boston Harbor.

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Intolerable Acts

in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses

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First Continental Congress

Delagates from all colonies except georgia met to discuss problems with britain and to promote independence

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Lexington and Concord

first battles of the Revolutionary War

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advantages and disadvantages of colonies

Advantages

  • Home court advantage

  • Reason to fight Disadvantages

  • No trained troops

  • Limited resources

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advantages and disadvantages of Brits

Advantages:

  • Had resources

  • Had unlimited trained troops Disadvantages

  • Locations of troops

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Strategies for Americans

Avoid large pitched battles, draw british away form their supply lines, and make the war expensive for the british

  • Also made alliance with France and used Guerilla Warfare

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Strategies for the British

Divide and Conquer

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Fort Ticonderoga

American revolutionary troops captured Fort Ticonderoga from the British in May 1775

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Bunker Hill

(June 17, 1775) Site of a battle early in the Revolutionary War. This battle contested control of two hills (Bunker Hill and Breed's Hill) overlooking Boston Harbor. The British captured the hills after the Americans ran-out of ammunition. "Don't shoot until you see the whites of their eyes!" Battle implied that Americans could fight the British if they had sufficient supplies.

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Second Continental Congress

Political authority that directed the struggle for independence beginning in 1775.

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Declaration of Independence

the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the colonies from Great Britain

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Trenton

On Christmas night, 1776, Washington led 2,400 men across the Delaware River to attack the drunken Hessians who were sleeping. The Americans killed 30 of the enemy and took 918 captives and 6 Hessian cannons.

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Articles of Confederation

1st Constitution of the U.S. 1781-1788 (weaknesses-no executive, no judicial, no power to tax, no power to regulate trade)

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Valley Forge

Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton, Steuben comes and trains troops

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Saratoga

A battle that took place in New York where the Continental Army defeated the British. It proved to be the turning point of the war. This battle ultimately had France to openly support the colonies with military forces in addition to the supplies and money already being sent.

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Southern Campaign

Change in British strategy after Saratoga to exploit a supposedly loyalist South by Lord General Sir Charles Cornwallis beginning in Charleston and ending at Yorktown.

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Yorktown 1781

last battle of the revolution; Benedict Arnold, Cornwallis and Washington; colonists won because British were surrounded and they surrended

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Treaty of Paris 1783

This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River

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Effects on Different Groups: Loyalists, Quakers, Slaves and Free African Americans, Native American, and Women

Loyalists 80,000 loyalists flee the country to Canada and Britain during or after the war FIghting against the loyalists who stayed continued after the war was officially over Quaker During the war, Quakers's supplies were taken for the war effort They were often accused of being British sympathizers of spies due to their refusal to fight Many Quakers moved to Canada Lost lots of political and economic power in places like Pennsylvania and New Jersey Increased isolation Slaves and Free African Americans 5000-8000 African Americans served during the war on the American Side Some states enacted laws thst paid enlistment bounties to slave owners who offered their slaves for service Black Battalion in Rhode Island Many Southern states employed slaves as seamen Black Loyalists relocated to Jamaica, Nova Scotia, Britain and eventually Sierra Leone Northern states abolished slavery Native Americans Southern tribes supported the British Iroquois Confederacy split No Native Americans present at the peace treaty Native loss of land to Americans Continued to be a threat Women Played many roles during the war Gained new respect but few new freedoms "Republican Motherhood"

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Nativism

the policy of protecting the interests of native-born or established inhabitants against those of immigrants.

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Enlightenment

A movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions.

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French Revolution

The revolution that began in 1789, overthrew the absolute monarchy of the Bourbons and the system of aristocratic privileges, and ended with Napoleon's overthrow of the Directory and seizure of power in 1799.

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Napoleon Bonaparte

Overthrew the French revolutionary government (The Directory) in 1799 and became emperor of France in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile.

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Peninsular War

A conflict, lasting from 1808 to 1813, in which Spanish Rebels, with the aid of British forces, fought to drive Napoleons French troops out of Spain.

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Hatian Independence

  • In 1804 Haiti declared its independence.

  • This was the only sucessful slave revolt in history.

  • The creoles led a majority of the independence movements in the rest of Latin America.

  • Many mestizos and other lower classes were inspired by the ideas of equality and freedom as well.

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Toussaint L'Ouverture

Was an important leader of the Haïtian Revolution and the first leader of a free Haiti in a long struggle again the institution of slavery, he led the blacks to victory over the whites and free coloreds and secured native control over the colony in 1797, calling himself a dictator.

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Creoles

Descendents of Spanish-born but born in Latin America resented inferior social, political, economic status.

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Mestizos

A person of mixed Native American and European ancestory

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Francisco de Miranda

planted the seed of revolutionary ideas in Venezuela. Unable to get support. Returned with Bolivar to lead the revolution.

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Constitution of Cadiz

A constitution formed in Spain that was never implemented or used, much of Spain was ruled by the French at the time

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Central Junta

Juntas were local governments that ran most of Spain in order to reject Joseph Bonaparte, brother of Napoleon and now King of Spain. Moreover, the Central Junta was based entirely off of Spain and believed that the colonies in S.A were subordinate.

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Americanos

the nativist term used during the wars of independence to suggest a natural alliance among all people born in America against the Spaniards and Portuguese

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Simon Bolivar

1783-1830, Venezuelan statesman: leader of revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule.

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Father Miguel Hidalgo

Led Mestizos and Native Americans to revolt against Spain in Mexico; leader of Mexico's Revolution

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Jose de San Martin

South American general and statesman, born in Argentina: leader in winning independence for Argentina, Peru, and Chile; protector of Peru

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Bernardo O'Higgins

The chief revolutionary leader of Chilean independence. Established as supreme dictator.

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Prince Joao VI

Transferred the Portugese court to Brazil and made it an Independent colony

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Pedro 1

Son and successor of Joao VI in Brazil; aided in the declaration of Brazilian independence from Portugal in 1822; became constitutional emperor of Brazil

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Brazilian Independence

creoles demanded Brazil's independence from Portugal and 8K Brazilians signed a petition to make Dom Pedro ruler and Sept 7, 1822 he declared Brazil's independence < won through a bloodless revolution!

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Venezuelan Independence

Simon Bolivar defeats spanish to gain venezuela freedom

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Conservatives

Looked back to the past (and support received as Spanish colonies) Preferred strong, central governments ruled by a powerful executive Retention of traditional social structure (and slavery) Supported primacy of Catholic Church Wary of free trade Strong government intervention in economy

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Liberals

Modeled ideas after France, England, and US Favored decentralized government

loose confederations

Favored liberty and equality End of social hierarchies, slavery, and Catholic power

Favored free trade

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William Walker

A proslavery American adventurer from the South, he led an expedition to seize control on Nicaragua in 1855. He wanted to petition for annexation it as a new slave state but failed when several Latin American countries sent troops to oust him before the offer was made.

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Caudillos

By the 1830s, following several hopeful decades of Enlightenment-inspired revolution against European colonizers, Latin America was mostly ruled by these creole military dictators.

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Latin American Constitutions

In an effort to created political stability, constitutions were written Few were long-lasting No stability Most enduring ones were strongly centralist Limited suffrage/representation to elite classes

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The economic development

Poor transportation, technology, and capital investment hindered growth Britain invested in countries via government loans (neo-Imperialism)

Forced into exports that didn't compete with Britain (natural resources and agriculture)

Monoculture economies dependent on cheap labor

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Monoculture

farming strategy in which large fields are planted with a single crop, year after year

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Popular Sovereignty

A belief that ultimate power resides in the people.

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Monroe Doctrine

an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers

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major differences between north and south

South:

  • Was dependent on agriculture

  • Didn't want tariffs

  • Slavery + low amount of towns

  • Low transportation North:

  • Dependent on industry

  • wanted tariffs

  • abolition movements

  • railroads and ports

  • lots of immigrants

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Make-up of Congress

half supporting slavery half against slavery

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Changes in Northern workforce

more diversity due to increased immigration

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Roles of Women in the Civil War

They cooked, cleaned, acted as nurses, and took factory jobs

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agriculture/industry in Northwest

bread basket

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Spread of Cotton Production

Started in the 1820's and soon became the linchpin of society. Cotton brought in nearly $200 million by the time of the Civil War.

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Expansion of Slavery

Although slaves were no longer used in the North, they were used in the South. It became a major issue, and was a key factor for the start of the Civil War.

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Why didn't the south use factories and what was their economy based off of?

slavery based indurstry

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Colonial Relationship north and south

north imported lots of goods from queen colonies while south exported goods

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Plantation System

A system of agricultural production based on large-scale land ownership and the exploitation of labor and the environment. This system focused on the production of cash crops and utilized slave labor.

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Life Under Slavery

slave auctions that seperated family, poor living conditions, small food rations

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Slave Codes

Laws that controlled the lives of enslaved African Americans and denied them basic rights.

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Slavery in the Caribbean

  1. main crop worked was sugarcane

  2. African slaves eventually outnumbered whites

  3. brutal working environment and harsh treatment

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Slave Resistance

Labor Slowdowns, Breaking Tools, Running Away, Underground Railroad, Songs as communication, "stupidness" to get out of working

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Nat Turner

Leader of a slave rebellion in 1831 in Virginia. Revolt led to the deaths of 20 whites and 40 blacks and led to the "gag rule' outlawing any discussion of slavery in the House of Representatives

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Underground Railroad

a system of secret routes used by escaping slaves to reach freedom in the North or in Canada

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Harriet Tubman

United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)

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William Lloyd Garrison

1805-1879. Prominent American abolitionist, journalist and social reformer. Editor of radical abolitionist newspaper "The Liberator", and one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society.

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Frederick Douglass

(1817-1895) American abolitionist and writer, he escaped slavery and became a leading African American spokesman and writer. He published his biography, The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, and founded the abolitionist newspaper, the North Star.

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John Brown

Abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)

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Harriet Beecher Stowe

(1811-1896) American author and daughter of Lyman Beecher, she was an abolitionist and author of the famous antislavery novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin.

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Sojourner Truth

United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women (1797-1883)

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Amistad (1839)

Spanish slave ship dramatically seized off the coast of Cuba by the enslaved Africans aboard. The ship was driven ashore in Long Island and the slaves were put on trial. Former president John Quincy Adams argued their case before the Supreme Court, securing their eventual release.

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Missouri Compromise

"Compromise of 1820" over the issue of slavery in Missouri. It was decided Missouri entered as a slave state and Maine entered as a free state and all states North of the 36th parallel were free states and all South were slave states.

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Nullification Crisis

A sectional crisis during the presidency of Andrew Jackson created by the Ordinance of Nullification, an attempt by the state of South Carolina to nullify a federal law - the tariff of 1828 - passed by the United States Congress.

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Compromise of 1850

(1) California admitted as free state, (2) territorial status and popular sovereignty of Utah and New Mexico, (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (4) federal assumption of Texas debt, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6) new fugitive slave law

advocated by Henry Clay and Stephen A. Douglas

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Fugitive Slave Act

A law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves

allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders

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Kansas-Nebraska Act

1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.

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