CNS exam 1

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Coordination, association, and integration

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1

Coordination, association, and integration

What are the three dominant roles of the nervous system?

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2

Twelve Cranial nerve pairs (24 total)

How man cranial nerves are there?

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3

31 spinal nerve pairs (62 total)

How man spinal nerves are there?

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4

Brain and Spinal Cord

The central nervous system consists of what?

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5

Cranial nerves III, VII, IX, and X and Sacral nerves 2, 3, and 4

What nerves are involved in the parasympathetic division, known as the "craniosacral" subdivision?

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6

Short

Are post-ganglionic axons in the parasympathetic division long or short?

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7

Spinal nerves from T1-L2 level

What nerves are involved in the sympathetic nervous system, known as the "thoracolumbar" subdivision?

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8

Norepinephrine

The sympathetic nervous system is said to be "adrenergic", which means it releases what neurotransmitter?

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9

Sweat glands and arrector pili muscles

What are the exceptions to the adrenergic rule of the sympathetic nervous system?

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10

1:17

What is the ratio of preganglionic to postganglionic neurons in the sympathetic nervous system?

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11

1:2

What is the ratio of preganglionic neurons to post ganglionic neurons in the parasympathetic nervous system?

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12

Ectoderm

What germ layer does the central nervous system come from?

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13

Prosencephalon, Mesencephalon, Rhombencephalon

What are the three primary brain vesicles?

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14

Telencephalon and Diencephalon (Te-Di is a Pro)

What are the two divisions of the prosencephalon?

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15

Metencephalon and Myelencephalon (Rhom Met Mye)

What are the divisions of the Rhombencephalon?

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16

First vestige of the nervous system

What is significant about the neural plate?

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17

Spinal Cord

What does the neural tube form into?

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18

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

What does the neural crest form into?

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19

Cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, lateral ventricles

What are the mature structures of the telencephalon?

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20

Thalamus, hypothalamus, pineal gland, 3rd ventricle

What are the mature structures of the diencephalon?

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21

Corpora quadrigemina, cerebral peduncles, cerebral aqueduct

What are the mature structures of the mesencephalon?

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22

Cerebellum, Pons, 4th ventricle

What are the mature structures of the Metencephalon?

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23

Medulla oblangata, 4th ventricle

What are the mature structures of the myelencephalon?

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24

10% of body weight, uses 60% of the oxygen of the body

What percentages of total body weight and consumption of oxygen is the brain at birth?

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25

2-2.5% of body weight, uses 20% of the oxygen of the body

What percentages of total body weight and consumption of oxygen is the adult brain?

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26

Neuroblasts, ependymal cells, and glioblasts

What three cells do neuroepithelial cells give rise to?

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27

Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes

What does the glioblast divide into?

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28

Yes

Can glioblasts undergo mitosis?

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29

5-10x as many

How many glioblasts (and their derivatives) are there compared to neurons?

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30

Astrocytes

What are the most numerous cell in the adult central nervous system?

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31

Protoplasmic astrocytes

What type of astrocyte is found in gray matter?

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32

Fibrous astrocyte

What type of astrocyte is found in white matter?

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33

Astrocytes

What are necessary for the function of the blood brain barrier? (BBB)

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34

Astrocytes

What cell forms scar like tissue in CNS injuries?

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35

Glutamate, dopamine, and serotonin

What neurotransmitters may be directly affected by astrocytes?

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36

Perineuronal oligodendrocytes

What type of oligodendrocyte is found in the gray matter?

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37

Interfasicular Oligodendrocytes

What type of oligodendrocyte is found in the white matter?

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38

Interfasicular Oligodendrocyte

What forms the myelin covering in CNS neurons

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39

Ependymal Cells

What cells line the central canal and the ventricles of the CNS?

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40

Ependymal cells

What cells secrete CSF and form coroid plexus?

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41

Tanycytes

Ependymal cells have specialized cells in the 3rd ventricle that transport CSF from the 3rd ventricle to the hypophyseal portal system. What are these cells called?

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42

Astrocytoma

What is the most common type of tumor regarding glial cells?

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43

Gliobastoma

What is the most lethal tumor regarding glial tumors?

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44

Ependymoma

What type of glial tumor is said to be "restrictive"?

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45

Mesoderm

Where does the microglia derive from?

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46

Microglia

What cell has a phagocytic function, which involves clearing dead tissue?

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47

Microglia

What cell mediate immune responses in the CNS?

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48

Radiation and alcohol

Exposure to what may cause over/undershooting of designated targets during critical embryonic stages?

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49

Unipolar

What type of neuron is found in sensory neurons or ganglia?

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50

Bipolar

What type of neuron is found in special sensory pathways (taste, smell, sight, hearing)

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51

Multipolar

What is the most abundant type of neuron?

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52

Long

Do golgi type I neurons have long or short axons?

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53

Short

Do golgi type II neurons have long or short axons?

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54

Golgi Type II

What is the most common type of multipolar neuron?

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55

Internuncial

If a neuron is entirely within the CNS it is said to be what type of neuron?

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56

Commissural

What type of internuncial neuron connects equivalent structures of the CNS?

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Ipsilateral projection

What type of internuncial neuron starts at one structure and ends at another structure, but on the same side of the midline?

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58

Contralateral Projection

What type of internuncial neuron starts at one structure and ends at another structure on opposite sides of the midline?

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59

Intrasegmental

What type of internuncial neuron starts at one cord level and ends at the same cord level?

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60

Intersegmental

What type of internuncial neuron starts at one cord level and ends at a different cord level?

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61

Neuropodia

What part of the neuron is the neurotransmitter released?

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Telodendria

What part of the neuron is the term for axon terminals?

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63

Axon Hillock

Where is the action potential initiated in a neuron?

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64

Axodendritic

What type of synapse is most common in the CNS?

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65

Nissl Bodies

What are clumps of rough E.R. in the CNS?

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66

Tigroid bodies

What is another name for nissl bodies?

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67

Axon or axon hillock

Where do nissl bodies not appear?

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68

Retrispersion of the golgi apparatus

What is chromatolysis of the nissl bodies often confused with?

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69

20-30 nm in diameter

How big are microtubules?

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70

3-5 nm in diameter

How big are microfilaments?

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71

9-10nm in diameter

How big are neurofilaments?

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72

Slow transport

What type of transport doesn't require energy, but moves large molecules like protein?

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73

Anterograde

What direction(s) can slow transport move?

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74

Fast transport

What type of transport requires energy and moves small items like lysosomes and enzymes?

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75

Anterograde or retrograde

What direction(s) can fast transport move?

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76

Unmyelinated

Will a fiber less than one micron in diameter be myelinated or unmyelinated?

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77

Sometimes myelinated

What happens if a fiber is 1-2 microns in diameter?

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78

Always myelinated

Will a fiber greater than 2 microns be myelinated?

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79

Fiber diameter and myelination

What two things determine conduction velocity?

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80

Yes

Will every fiber in the PNS have a schwann cell covering?

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81

No

Will every fiber in the PNS be myelinated? (Remember the diameter rule)

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82

Node of Ranvier

What is the small space between schwann cells?

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83

Endoneurium

What layer of connective tissue on a nerve is highly vascular, but covers the smallest portions of the nerve?

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84

Perineurium

What layer of connective tissue on a nerve is fairly elastic and is continuous with the pia mater?

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85

Epineurium

What is the outer layer of CT that covers a nerve, is very inelastic, and is continuous with the dura mater?

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86

Interfasicular Oligodendrocytes

What cell myelinates fibers of the CNS?

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87

Schwann Cells

What cell myelinates fibers of the PNS?

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88

Up to 40

How many fibers can an oligodendrocyte cover?

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89

Usually one

How many fibers can a schwann cell cover?

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90

Interfasicular oligodendrocytes

What structure does multiple sclerosis attack?

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91

Schwann Cells

What structure does Guillan Barre syndrome attack?

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92

Acetylcholine (ACh)

What was the first neurotransmitter identified?

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93

GABA

What is the most widespread INHIBITORY neurochemical?

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94

Glutamate

What is the most abundant neurochemical? It is usually excitatory.

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95

Endosteal (highly vascular) and meningeal (fibrous layer)

What are the layers of the dura mater?

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96

Endosteal layer

What layer of the dura mater is lost in the vertebral canal?

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97

Yes, areolar and adipose tissue, along with the internal vertebral venous plexus

Is there an epidural space in the vertebral column? If so, what is it filled with?

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98

Meningovertebral ligaments

What is is called where the dura slips and attaches to ligaments of the periosteum of the vertebrae?

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99

Dural Falces

What are double layers of meningeal dura that extend into fissures of the brain?

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100

Falx Cerebri

What falx is located in the longitudinal cerebral fissure?

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