MIDTERM SOCIAL STUDIES DARRENKAMP

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Event that was the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages

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1

Event that was the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages

The Fall Of Rome

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2

Reason for development of Feudalism

People needed protection

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3

________ made up the largest part of the population in feudal society

Peasants

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4

Role of the RCC during the Middle Ages

A huge role. The church was considered independent. It provided education, helped the poor and sick, etc.

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5

How the crusades affected the world / results

Education increased, Power for kings increased and power for lords decreased, Middle class grew, Trading flourished.

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6

Reactions / results of the Black Death

Reactions: People thought it may be a punishment from God, People blamed another religion, like the Jews, had poisoned the wells.

Results: Millions died and Europe faced a labor shortage, production declined and food shortages were common.

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7

How many crusades

8

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8

What helped give rise to the middle class

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9

Incentives to fight in a crusade

Cause: Arguments over access to the Holy Lands. If they died on a crusade they believed they'd get a free pass to heaven.

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10

Cause of the Hundred Year War

It began when Edward III invaded Flanders in 1337 in order to assert his claim to the French crown. This war was between England and France, the French won. Joan of Arc helped the French.

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11

Results of Hundred Years War

French became the most powerful

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12

Common Law (Established by who?)

Common Law was established by Henry II.

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13

Magna Carta

a document constituting a fundamental guarantee of rights and privileges.

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14

How does William the Conqueror change feudalism in England

he gave large areas of land to noblemen, including the clergy , lords and barons , in return for them raising him money and an army.

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15

Da Vinci

Mainly an artist, engineer, scientist, sculpture, and architect. Painted Mona Lisa.

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16

Patron

a wealthy or influential supporter of an artist or writer

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17

Florence

Birthplace of the Renaissance

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18

Raphael

painted the last supper, Italian painter

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19

Michelangelo

painted the Sistine Chapel, Italian artist

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20

Rome

Primary focal point of Renaissance

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21

Perspective

Technique used in Renaissance art to make it appear 3 dimensional.

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22

Humanism/ what it emphasizes as important

Intellectual movement at the heart of the Italian Renaissance. Emphasizes the individually of humans, human values, dignity, knowledge, etc.

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23

Printing Press/3 effects

Invented by Johannes Gutenberg. Effects: more copies of books, spread of ideas, and reading became more accessible.

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24

Rebirth

translation of Renaissance in French and English

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25

King Henry VIII

Painted the last supper. Reformation, he broke away from the Catholic church creating The Anglican Church.

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26

Petrarch

Father of Humanism

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27

Gutenberg

Invented the printing press.

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28

Martin Luther

Lutheran, wrote the 95 theses, a publication criticizing the Catholic Church.

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29

Machiavelli

Wrote The Prince, a book on how to acquire power and keep it.

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30

The Prince

a book on how to acquire power and keep it.

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31

School of Athens

Painting by Raphael

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32

Protestant Reformation (2 effects)

Literacy rates improved dramatically as Protestants were encouraged to read the Bible for themselves, and education became a higher priority.

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33

Henry VIII (why started own religion, what is it called)

The pope would not annul his marriage to catherine of aragon, he started anglicanism

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34

Secular

Worldy, Non religious

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35

Clergy

Workers of the church

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36

Vernacular

everyday language

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37

Shakespeare

A popular English playwright and poet in the 16th century. He contributed to the renaissance by creating a new style of writing plays.

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38

Last Supper

A painting by Italian artist Leonardo Da Vinci. The painting showed Jesus telling his apostles that one of them will betray him.

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39

Sistine Chapel

A painting on the ceiling of a church by Michelangelo

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40

Romeo and Juliet

One of 7 plays Shakespeare set in the Italian Renaissance.

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41

95 Theses

Book written by Martin Luther. Helped push start to the protestant reformation. Speaks about how someone can only reach salvation by their faith rather than their deeds.

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42

Reformation/cause/effects

Cause: Henry the 8th quest for a male heir Effect: Improved training and education for some roman Catholic Priests.

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43

Inquisition/where started

A group of institutions within the catholic church to combat heresy, treachery, and traitors. Started in the 12th century in the kingdom of France.

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44

Indulgences

Temporal punishment for sins that have already been forgiven is taken from a sinner.

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45

Counter Reformation/purpose

The Catholic Church's response to the Protestantism challenge. Solidified the original doctrine and purpose of the church. It was combat the protestant reformation.

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46

Council of Trent

Council of the catholic church that held a series of meeting to address the Protestantism threat to the church.

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47

Italy/political organization

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48

Medici

A family that ran Italy through banks

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49

Calvin

John Calvin. Started the movement, Calvinism

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50

Knox

A Scottish minister and a writer. Leader of the Scottish reformation.

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51

Huguenots

French Protestants

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52

Black death/ where recovered Jesuits/ who recovered first

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53

Anabaptist

A faith stream within Christianity.

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54

Ignatius of Loyola

A Spanish catholic priest. Founded the religious order of the society of Jesus. One of the most known figures in the counter reformation.

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55

Puritans what they wanted to reform

They believed that civil authorities should enforce religion.

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56

Catholic response to Luther

The Holy Roman Empire would condemn him an outlaw, the Catholic Church would brand him a heretic.

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57

Peace of Augsburg/parts

-A temporary settlement of religious conflict in The Holy Roman Empire. -Established the principle of Cuius Regio. -Established the principle of reservatum ecclesiasticum -Laid the legal groundwork for religious confessions

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58

Who supported Luther/why

-nobles and many princes -they called them protestants -many people liked him for selfish reasons -to assert their independence from Charles the 5th

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59

RCC Response to luther

They banned his books and excommunicated him

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60

Peace of Westphalia/ parts

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61

30 years war/who/why/effects

Catholics vs Protestant states.

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62

Act of supremacy

2 acts passed by the parliment of England that established the English monarchs

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63

Presbyterianism/where

-the system of church government by representative assemblies called presbyteries, in opposition to government by bishops -Belonging or relating to Protestant Church -Scotland could also be Switzerland

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64

Jesuits/where

an apostolic religious community called the Society of Jesus. Where: France -succeeded in converting millions around the world to Catholicism.

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65

Calvinists/where

People who believed someone who sought to purify the church in the late 16th century. John Calvin created this religion.

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66

Pope Paul III

Catholic Counter-Reformation

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67

Francis Bacon Who/what were they known for

Researched and Discovered nature/sceintific method

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68

Isaac Newton Who/what were they known for

was an English mathematician, physicist, astronomer, alchemist, theologian, and author. Known for laws of gravity and motion.

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69

Copernicus Who/what were they known for

Wrote book about planets revolving around the sun Went against church ideas Transformed the world of science

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70

Galileo Who/what were they known for

was a natural philosopher, astronomer, and mathematician. Known for the Telescope and scientific method.

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71

Kepler Who/what were they known for

was a German astronomer, mathematician, astrologer, natural philosopher and writer on music. Known for Planetary motion

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72

Guttenberg Who/what were they known for

was a German inventor and craftsman. Known for inventing the printing press.

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73

Descartes Who/what were they known for

René Descartes was a French philosopher, scientist, and mathematician. connect math and geometry.

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74

Magellan Who/Where did they explore/what did they do to contribute to exploration

from Spain in 1519 with a fleet of five ships to discover a western sea route to the Spice Islands. first European to cross the Pacific Ocean. masterminding the first expedition to circumnavigate the world

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75

Columbus Who/Where did they explore/what did they do to contribute to exploration

An Italian Navigator Wanted to reach the east indies Explored the Americas under the flag of Spain. revealed two continents new to Europeans and initiated a period of rapid colonization, exploration, and exploitation in the Americas. Wanted to convert more people into Christianity

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76

Prince Henry the Navigator Who/Where did they explore/what did they do to contribute to exploration

Country: Portugal Year(s): 1415-1460 Contribution: Gathered Scientists,cartographers, map makes, ship makers...redisgned ships and trained captains...sent ships to explore the continent of Africa started the movement to find a direct route to India in Asia

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77

Vasco de Gama Who/Where did they explore/what did they do to contribute to exploration

Country: Portugal year(s): 1497 Contribution: Went around Africa and reached India; he was the first European to directly reach India by boat.

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78

Pizarro Who/Where did they explore/what did they do to contribute to exploration

-down the west coast of South America. -led a brutal and bloody campaign to conquer and subjugate the Inca empire.

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79

English/Dutch joint stock companies/define

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80

Effect of Portuguese exploration on trade (think monopoly)

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81

Columbian Exchange/define/what was exchanged

Global swapping of goods, ideas, plants, animals, and disease

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82

African Slave Trade/why established

It was when slaves would be traded and shipped off. It was established because it was a cheap way of labor.

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83

Triangular Trade

linked Europe, Africa, and Americas

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84

Approx number of slaves brought to new world

10 million

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85

Mercantilism

An economic policy aimed at strengthening national economies by acquiring silver and gold.

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86

Effects of slavery in New World (3)

-labor demands increased

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87

Native Americans/# died/why?

Native Americans weren't use to the disease the Europeans were. They weren't immune.

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88

Growth of Population in Europe as a result...why?

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89

Capitalism

An economic system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit.

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90

Bourgeoisie

the middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people

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91

The early system of government in the middle ages before feudalism…. was called

manoralism

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92

under feudalism the richest lords were called

lords

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