All else equal, in which of the following forms of business would the possibility of an agency problem be the greatest?
A U.S. corporation in which individual stockholders own extremely small proportions of the company
Which of the following statements is correct?
The potential for agency problems is greatest when individual stockholders own extremely small proportions of the companies and managers have little, if any, of their own wealth tied up in these companies.
Institutional investors can ensure that a corporation pursues goals that are in their best interest by _____.
monitoring its financial performance to ensure that managers pursue the goal of wealth maximization
The treasurer of a company is a key subordinate of the _____.
financial vice president
Which of the following statements is true of earnings per share?
Earnings per share is often used as an indication of the firm's potential for generating future cash flows.
It is possible to limit the liability faced by some of the partners in a partnership form of business by establishing a _____
limited liability partnership (LLP)
Using the information below for WAM Inc., the market value per share is: Earnings after interest and taxes = $200,000 Earnings per share = $2.00 Stockholders' equity = $2,000,000 Market/Book ratio = 0.20
$4.00.
If a company has a quick ratio of 1.0 and a current ratio of 2.0, then:
the value of current liabilities is equal to the value of inventory.
Other things held constant, which of the following will not affect the current ratio, assuming an initial current ratio greater than 1.0?
accounts receivable are collected
Pearl Automotive Ltd. has a current ratio of 2. The company wants to window dress its financial statements. Which of the following transactions will increase the current ratio of Pearl Automotive, assuming all other variables remain constant?
Repayment of shortterm loan
Bicksler Corporation has a current ratio of 2.0 on July 21 of the current year. On July 22, Bicksler purchased (and received) raw materials on credit from its supplier. Assuming all other things are equal, how will this transaction affect the current ratio of Bicksler?
The value of the current ratio will decrease.
Which of the following transactions will not affect the quick ratio of a company?
accounts receivable are collected
Emerald Corporation's current ratio is 0.5, while Ruby (Emerald's competitor) Company's current ratio is 1.5. Both firms want to "window dress" their coming endofyear financial statements. As part of their window dressing strategy, each firm will double its current liabilities by adding shortterm debt and placing the funds obtained in the cash account. Which of the statements below best describes the actual results of these transactions?
Only Emerald Corporation's current ratio will be increased.
Alumbat Corporation has $800,000 in debt outstanding, and pays an interest rate of 10 percent annually on its bank loan. Alumbat's annual sales are $3,200,000, its average tax rate is 40 percent, and its net profit margin on sales is 6 percent. If the company does not maintain a TIE ratio of at least 4 times, its bank will refuse to renew its loan, and bankruptcy will result. Alumbat's current times interest earned ratio is:
5.0 times.
Selzer Inc. sells all of its merchandise on credit. It has a profit margin of 4 percent, days sales outstanding equal to 60 days, receivables of $150,000, total assets of $3 million, and a debt ratio of 0.64. The firm's return on equity (ROE) is:
3.3%.
An inventory turnover ratio of 8.5 times indicates that:
the firm will restock its inventory every 42.35 days
If a firm's existing quick ratio is 1.2, and all other variables remain unchanged, the quick ratio can be increased by
receiving interest income.
Suppose a firm has a growth rate equal to 8 percent, return on assets (ROA) of 10 percent, a debt ratio of 20 percent, and a current stock price of $36. The firm's return on equity (ROE) is:
12.5%.
Determine the increase or decrease in cash for Rinky Supply Company for last year, given the following information. (Assume no other changes occurred during the past year.) Dividend payment $25 Increase in accounts receivables $50 Increase in notes payable $30 Decrease in accounts payable $20 Increase in accrued wages and taxes $15 Increase in inventories $35 Addition to retained earnings $5
$80
A firm has total interest charges of $10,000 per year, sales of $1 million, a tax rate of 40 percent, and a net profit margin of 6 percent. The firm's times interest earned ratio is:
11 times
Which of the following statements is true regarding debt ratios?
Firms with relatively high debt ratios have higher expected returns when business is good.
Helium Brands Ltd. has a beginning balance of retained earnings of $185 million. Helium has a net income of $48 million and has paid a dividend of $15 million in the current year. The ending balance of retained earnings is:
$218 million.
Which of the following mathematical expressions calculates a firm's retained earnings at the end of a year?
Retained earnings = Beginning balance of retained earnings + Net income in the current year − Dividends paid in the current year
The statement of retained earnings for Redwood Systems Ltd. shows a retained earnings balance of $300 million on December 31. During the year, Redwood generated net income of $60 million and paid dividends of $20 million to its stockholders. What was the beginning balance of retained earnings at the start of this year?
$260 million
Assume that Meyer Corporation is 100 percent equity financed, and has the following information: (1) Earnings before taxes = $1,500; (2) Sales = $5,000; (3) Dividend payout ratio = 60%; (4) Total assets turnover = 2.0; (5) Applicable tax rate = 30% The firm's return on equity is:
42%.
Ruby Enterprises Ltd. has longterm bonds worth $20 million, retained earnings of $45 million, accounts payable of $10 million, notes payable of $12 million, and inventory worth $18 million. What is the value of total liabilities of Ruby Enterprises?
$42 million
Ship Shape Marine (SSM) needs $92 million to support future growth. If SSM issues bonds to raise funds, flotation (issuance) costs will be 8 percent. Each bond will be sold for $1,000; fractions of bonds cannot be issued. How many bonds must be issued so that SSM has $92 million after flotation costs to use for its planned growth?
100,000
The process by which commercial banks transform funds provided by savers into funds used by borrowers is called _____
financial intermediation
If William earns a 10 percent return and Kate earns a 7 percent return on investments with the same risk, the additional 3 percent return on William's investment is a(n) _____
abnormal return
What is the primary reason an investment banking firm often forms an underwriting syndicate to sell new securities?

Which of the following plans is administered primarily by the trust departments of commercial banks or by life insurance companies?
Pension plans
When issuing new securities, which of the following decisions does the firm make by itself?
Deciding whether to go for a competitive bid or a negotiated deal with an investment banker
Financial intermediaries spread their risk by providing funds to a large number and variety of borrowers by offering many different types of loans. Due to this, the loan portfolios of intermediaries are said to be _____.
well diversified
Welsh Corporation wants to issue debt of $525,000 to invest in a new project. Welsh is required to pay its investment banker 5 percent of the issue's total value. There are no other floatation costs. Compute the amount of debt that the firm must issue to net $525,000 after flotation costs.
$552,632
Treasury bills are issued by the U.S. government. In which type of financial market do already issued treasury bills trade?
Money market
Investment companies that use the money provided by savers to invest in various types of financial assets, including stocks and bonds, are called _____.
mutual funds
Mutual funds _____.
are investment companies that use funds provided by savers to buy various types of financial assets, including stocks and bonds, in the financial markets
Devine Linens (DL) must raise $14,000,000 to support future growth. If it raises the funds by issuing stock, DL must pay an investment banker 5 percent of the total amount issued plus $250,000 in other costs associated with the issue. What is the amount of stock that DL must issue to net $14,000,000 after flotation costs?
$15,000,000
When issuing new securities, which of the following decisions is made jointly by a corporation and its investment banker?
Deciding whether to go for a bestefforts or underwritten issue
Zinc Corporation, a large, wellknown public company that frequently issues securities, filed a master registration statement with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). This master statement is updated with a shortform statement just prior to each individual security offering. What is this arrangement called?
Shelf registration
Persian Rugs needs $600 million to support growth next year. If it issues new common stock to raise the funds, the flotation (issuance) costs will be 4 percent. If Persian can issue stock at $125 per share, how many shares of common stock must be issued so that it has $600 million after flotation costs to use for its planned growth?
5,000,000
Which of the following financial intermediaries operates as a notforprofit organization?
Credit union
Which of the following financial intermediaries is also known as a savings and loan association?
Thrift institution
The difference between the issuing price of a debt or equity issue and the net proceeds of the issue received by the issuing firm is known as the _____.
underwriter's spread
Credit unions, mutual funds, and thrift institutions are all examples of _____.
financial intermediaries
Which of the following statements is true of a term life insurance?
a term life insurance is a relatively short term contract that provides financial protection for Temporary period
Following are the yields on selected Treasury securities: Maturity Yield 2 years 1.6% 3 years 2.2 4 years 2.4 Using the expectations theory, compute the expected oneyear interest rate in Year 3. That is, compute the rate that is expected to exist only during Year 3. (Base your answer on an arithmetic average rather than a geometric average.)
3.4%
Your uncle would like to restrict his interest rate risk and his default risk, but he would still like to invest in corporate bonds. Which of the bonds listed below best satisfies your uncle's criteria?
An AAA bond with 5 years to maturity
Which of the following bonds has the greatest default risk?
A CCC corporate bond with a 10year maturity
Following is information about three bonds: Issuer Yield Time to Maturity Treasury 2.0% 6 months Company A 5.0 5 years Company B 5.3 8 years Although none of the bonds has a liquidity premium, any bond with a maturity equal to one year or greater has a maturity risk premium (MRP). Except for their terms to maturity, the characteristics of the Company A and Company B bonds are the same (including their default risk). The average inflation rate is expected to remain constant during the next 10 years. What is the default risk premium (DRP) associated with the bonds issued by Company A and Company B?
2.5%
Assume that the expectations theory holds and that liquidity and maturity risk premiums are zero. The annual rate of interest on a twoyear Treasury bond is 10.5 percent and the rate on a oneyear Treasury bond is 12 percent. What is the expected oneyear interest rate during the second year?
9.0%
If the Federal Reserve loosens the money supply to control growth in the economy, _____.
interest rates will decrease
Assume that real riskfree rate (r*) = 1.00%; the maturity risk premium is found as MRP = 0.20% × (t  1), where t = years to maturity; the default risk premium for AT&T bonds is found as DRP = 0.07% × (t  1); the liquidity premium (LP) is 0.50 percent for AT&T bonds but zero for Treasury bonds; and inflation is expected to be 7 percent, 6 percent, and 5 percent during the next three years and then 4 percent thereafter. What is the difference in interest rates between 10year AT&T bonds and 10year Treasury bonds? (Round answer to two decimal places.)
1.13%
Assume that a threeyear Treasury note (Tnote) has no maturity premium, and that the real riskfree rate of interest is 3 percent. If the Tnote carries a nominal riskfree rate of return of 13 percent and if the expected average inflation rate over the next two years is 9 percent, what is the implied expected inflation rate during Year 3?
12%
When the economy is expanding too quickly and the Federal Reserve (Fed) wants to control future growth in the economy, the Fed will:
decrease the money supply
Following is information about three bonds: Issuer Yield Time to Maturity Treasury 2.0% 6 months Company A 5.0 5 years Company B 5.3 8 years Although none of the bonds has a liquidity premium, any bond with a maturity equal to one year or greater has a maturity risk premium (MRP). Except for their terms to maturity, the characteristics of the Company A and Company B bonds are the same (including their default risk). The average inflation rate is expected to remain constant during the next 10 years. What is the annual MRP?
0.1%
Which of the following statements is true?
Treasury bonds have zero default risk.
Which of the following statements is correct?
Other things held constant, the "liquidity preference theory" would generally lead to an upward sloping yield curve
The yield on a oneyear Treasury bond is 5 percent, and the yield on a twoyear Treasury bond is 6 percent. Assume that the pure expectations theory holds and that the market is in equilibrium. Which of the following statements is correct?
The market expects oneyear interest rate during the second year to be 7 percent.
Treasury securities that mature in 6 years currently have an interest rate of 8.50 percent. Inflation is expected to be 5 percent in each of the next three years and 6 percent each year thereafter. The maturity risk premium is estimated to be 0.10% × (t  1), where t is equal to the maturity of the bond (i.e., the maturity risk premium of a oneyear bond is zero). The real riskfree rate is assumed to be constant over time. What is the real riskfree rate of interest?
2.50%
Assume that the current interest rate on a oneyear bond is 8 percent, the current rate on a twoyear bond is 10 percent, and the current rate on a threeyear bond is 12 percent. If the expectations theory of the term structure is correct, what is the oneyear interest rate expected during Year 3? (Base your answer on an arithmetic average rather than a geometric average.)
16%
Assume that the real riskfree rate is 4 percent, and that inflation is expected to be 9 percent in Year 1, 6 percent in Year 2, and 4 percent thereafter. Also, assume that all Treasury bonds are highly liquid and free of default risk. If 2year and 5year Treasury bonds both yield 12 percent, what is the difference in the maturity risk premiums (MRPs) on the two bonds, i.e., what is MRP5  MRP2? (Round answer to one decimal place.)
2.1%
Which of the following statements is correct?
Reinvestment rate risk is lower, other things held constant, on longterm than on shortterm bonds.
Everything else the same, if the yield curve is downward sloping, what is the yield to maturity on a 10year Treasury coupon bond, relative to that on a oneyear Treasury bond (Tbond)?
The yield on the 10year bond is less than the yield on a oneyear bond.
Open market operations occur when _____.
the Federal Reserve buys or sells Treasury securities to expand or contract the U.S. money supply.
You are given the following data:
r* = real riskfree rate 4% Constant inflation premium (IP) 7% Maturity risk premium (MRP) 1% Default risk premium for AAA bonds (DRP) 3% Liquidity premium for longterm Treasury bonds (Tbonds) (LP) 2% Assume that a highly liquid market does not exist for longterm Tbonds, and the expected rate of inflation is a constant. Given these conditions, the rate on longterm Treasury bonds is _____.
14 percent
If Rachel invests $1700 today in an account that pays 6 percent interest compounded annually, how long will it take for her to accumulate $6,500 in her account?
23.02 years
Five years ago, Brian had invested $14,850 in a growth fund. The investment is worth $22,000 today. If the interest was compounded annually, what is the annual rate of return earned on the investment?
8.2%
Andrea's opportunity cost rate is 12 percent compounded annually. How much must she deposit in an account today if she wants to receive $2,100 at the beginning of each of the next seven years? Use the equation method to determine the amount.
$10,734
If the opportunity cost rate is 8 percent, compounded annually, what is the present value of $8,200 due to be received in 12 years?
$3,256
Which of the following statements about a bond that is selling at a discount is correct?
the market price of the bond will increase and will approach its face value as the maturity date gets closer
Assume that a firm distributes all of its earnings as dividends. Which of the following is indicated by a priceearnings (P/E) ratio of 10?
It would take 10 years for an investor to recover his or her initial investment.
Which of the following is true about a growth stock?
It generally pays little or no dividends because the firm retains most of its earnings to fund developmental opportunities.
The last dividend on Spirex Corporation's common stock was $4.00, and the expected growth rate is 10 percent. If you require a rate of return of 20 percent, what is the highest price you should be willing to pay for this stock?
$44.00
Which of the following is true about the change in a stock price?
If investors demand higher returns to invest in stocks, then stock prices should fall.
Which of the following statements about correlation is correct?
The weaker the positive correlation two stocks exhibit, the more risk can be reduced when they are combined in a portfolio.
For Investment A, the probability of the return being 20 percent is 0.5, 10 percent is 0.4, and –10 percent is 0.1. Compute the standard deviation for the investment with the given information.
9.0%
Which of the following statements about relevant risk and irrelevant risk is correct?
Relevant risk includes interest rate risk, but excludes a firm's default risk.
Which of the following measures captures the effects of both risk and return, which makes it a better measure than standard deviation for evaluating standalone risk in situations where investments differ with respect to both their amounts of total risk and their expected returns?
Coefficient of variation
Which of the following statements about the riskreturn relationship observed in investing is correct?
An increase in the expected inflation rate would lead to an increase in the required return on all the risky assets by the same amount, assuming all other things were held constant.
Isabel invested in fourstock portfolio; she invested 20 percent of her money in Stock A, 30 percent of her money in Stock B, 25 percent of her money in Stock C, and 25 percent of her money in Stock D. The betas for Stock A, B, C, and D are 0.4, 1.2, 2.5, and 1.75, respectively, and their expected returns are 12 percent, 24 percent, 30 percent, and 28 percent, respectively. What is the beta of Isabel's portfolio?
1.50
Paul wants to accumulate $14,500 for the down payment for a new condo. He plans to start investing $2,500 annually beginning today. The investment account will pay 10 percent interest compounded annually. How long would it take him to accumulate enough money to make the down payment?
4.4 years
A leading bank offers an investment that pays 8 percent interest, compounded semiannually. What is the investment's effective annual rate (rEAR)?
8.16%
Frank purchased his house 16 years ago by taking out a 25year mortgage for $150,000. The mortgage has a fixed interest rate of 5 percent compounded monthly. If he wants to pay off his mortgage today, how much money does he need? He made his most recent mortgage payment earlier today. (Round your intermediate calculation and your answer to two decimal places.)
$76,136.95
If Alvin invests $5,500 today in a savings account, the money will grow to $8,500 at the end of Year 4. Assuming that the interest is paid once per year, the effective annual rate of the investment is _____.
11.5%
Dwayne plans to invest $4,700 in a savings account at the beginning of each of the next 12 years. If his opportunity cost rate is 7 percent compounded annually, how much will his investment be worth at the end of 12 years?
$89,961.02
Jude wants to receive $1,100 at the beginning of each of the next eight years. If his opportunity cost rate is 9 percent compounded annually, how much must he deposit in an account today? Use a financial calculator to make the calculation.
$6,636
Bill is considering investing $450 at the end of every month in a fixed income instrument. He will receive $27,000 at the end of four years. If interest is compounded monthly, what is the effective annual rate of return earned on the investment?
11.6%
Robert plans to invest $650 in a savings account at the beginning of each of the next seven years. If his opportunity cost rate is 5 percent compounded annually, how much will his investment be worth at the end of seven years?
$5,557
At the beginning of the year, William bought 20 shares of Zync Corporation at $18.50 per share. Zync pays dividend at the end of each year based on annual profits, which generally vary substantially from year to year. In its 25 years history, Zync has paid dividends every year without fail. The initial investment by William and the receipt of dividend at the end of every year are examples of a(n) _____ and a(n) _____, respectively.
lumpsum payment; uneven cash flow stream
Ross purchased a new commercial vehicle today for $25,000. The entire amount was financed using a fiveyear loan with a 4 percent interest rate (compounded monthly). How much will Ross owe on his vehicle loan after making payments for three years (i.e., when two years of payments remain)?
$10,602.44
Glen wants to take a holiday that costs $8,850, but currently he only has $2,750 saved. If he invests this money at 8 percent interest compounded annually, how long will he have to wait to take his holiday?
15.19 years
Liam is considering putting money in an investment plan that will pay him $52,000 in 12 years. If Liam's opportunity cost rate is 7 percent compounded annually, what is the maximum amount he should be willing to pay for the investment today?
$23,089
Shekhar plans to invest $1,820 in a mutual fund at the end of each of the next six years. If his opportunity cost rate is 8 percent compounded annually, how much will his investment be worth after the last annuity payment is made? Use the equation method to calculate the worth of the investment.
$13,351.39
Rebecca is currently working, but is planning to start a college in few years. For this purpose, she would need $20,000. Today she can start investing $750 monthly in an investment account that pays 6 percent compounded monthly. How long would it take her to have enough money to start college?
25.0 months
LeGo Financials offer two investment plans. Investment A pays 9 percent interest compounded monthly, whereas Investment B pays 10 percent interest compounded semiannually. What are the effective annual rates of Investment A and Investment B?
9.38 percent and 10.25 percent, respectively
Shaun is planning to invest $570 in a mutual fund at the end of each of the next eight years. If his opportunity cost rate is 6 percent compounded annually, how much will his investment be worth after the last annuity payment is made?
$5,642
Stephanie purchased a corporate bond that matures in three years. The bond has a coupon interest rate of 9 percent and its yield to maturity is 6 percent. If market interest rates remain constant and Stephanie sells the bond in 12 months, her capital gain from holding the bond will be:
negative because she purchased the bond at a premium and the bond price will approach its face value as it nears its maturity.
JRJ Corporation issued 10year bonds at a price of $1,000. These bonds pay $60 interest every six months. Their price has remained the same since they were issued; that is, the bonds still sell for $1,000. Due to additional financing needs, the firm wishes to issue new bonds that would have a maturity of 10 years and a par value of $1,000 and pay $40 interest every six months. If both bonds have the same yield, how many new bonds must JRJ issue to raise additional capital of $2 million? Fractions of bonds cannot be issued. (Round the number of bonds to the nearest whole number.)
2,596
Rick bought a bond when it was issued by Macroflex Corporation 14 years ago. The bond, which has a $1,000 face value and a coupon rate equal to 10 percent, matures in six years. Interest is paid every six months; the next interest payment is scheduled for six months from today. Assuming the yield on similar risk investments is 14 percent, calculate the current market value (price) of the bond.
$841.15