A&P semester review

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121 Terms

1

expiration

process of exhaling

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2

breathing

movement of air into & out of lungs

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3

trachea

flexible cartilaginous tube

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4

pneumotaxic area

neurons that regulate rate of breathing

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5

chemosensitive areas

sensitive to changes in concentration of CO2 & hydrogen ions

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6

hyperventilation

act of breathing deeply & rapidly

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7

respiration

entire process of gas exchange

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8

760 mm Hg

what is atmospheric pressure at sea level?

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9

alveoli

exchange of gases in the lungs occur in?

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10

mediastinum

space between lungs?

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11

diffusion

exchange of gases in lungs?

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12

nitrogen

major portion of the atmosphere is composed of?

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13

carbon dioxide

hyperventilation is triggered by the rapid reduction of which gas in the bloodstream?

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14

pneumotaxic area

this group of neurons helps regulate the rate of breathing?

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15

dorsal respiratory group

this group of neurons is responsible for the basic rhythm of breathing?

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16

CO2 & hyrogen

chemosensitive areas are sensitive to concentration changes in what 2 blood elements?

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17

tracheopharynx

which isn’t a subdivision of the pharynx?

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18

nitrogen

in a sample of air which of the gases would have the highest partial pressure?

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19

hyaline

which type of cartilage forms the larynx?

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20

2

in order to inhale, we must lower the pressure in our thoracic cavity by thus many mm of Hg?

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21

70-80

the alveoli in 1 adult lung have a total surface area of how many sqr ft?

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22

efferent arteriole

carries away from the glomerulus

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23

bowman’s capsule

thin-walled, saclike structure

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24

glomerular filtrate

substance absorbed out of blood within glomerulus

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25

filtration pressure

pressure acting to force substances out of the glomerulus

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26

trigone

forms floor of bladder

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27

glomerulus

tangled cluster of blood capilaries

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28

ureter

carries urine from kidneys to bladder

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29

afferent arteriole

carries blood to glomerulus

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30

ureter

pelvis of the kidney opens into the

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31

Cortex

Region of kidneys that is composed chiefly of blood, capillaries, and tubules is the

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32

Bowmans capsule

The saclike end of a kidney tubule is called the

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33

Bowmans capsule

The part of a nephron that is most intimately related to the glomerulus is the

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34

Uvula

The following structures are included in the urinary system, except

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35

Urethra

The urine is carried to the outside of the body by the

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36

Nephron

A functional unit of the kidney is the

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37

Urinary bladder

The urine is stored in the

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38

Bowmans capsule

The upper end of each nephron is expanded into a saclike structure, called the

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39

Micturition

Elimination of urine

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40

Glomeruli

The cavity of Bowmans capsule is filled with 50 separate capillaries called

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41

Afferent arterials

Which blood vessel carries blood directly into the glomerulus

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42

2 gallons

How much glomerular filtrate is produce every

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43

Glucose

Which of the following substances are present in the filtrate, but not in the urine?

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44

Potassium

Which substance enters the urine via tubular secretion

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45

Chyme

Paste of food particles, and gastric juice

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46

Emulsification

Breakdown of fat, globules into smaller droplets

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47

Ileoceal valve

Muscular sphincter that divides the small and large intestine

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48

Gallbladder

Pear-shaped sac that stores bile

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49

Chief cells

Secrete digestive enzymes

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50

Ruegae

Folds of the stomach lining

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51

Esophagus

Passageway between the pharynx and stomach

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52

Intrinsic factor

Secreted by the Perrietta cells, helps absorb B12

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53

Cardiac sphincter

Passage from the esophagus into the stomach

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54

Common bile duct

Carries bile from the liver to the small intestine

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55

3 to 6

Fatty foods remain in the stomach for_____hours

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56

Pancreas and liver

Small intestine receives digestive, secretions from the

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57

Peptidase

Which digestive enzyme splits peptides into amino acids

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58

Peristaltic rush

_____Moves the contents of the small intestine very rapidly into the large intestine

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59

1.5

The large intestine is approximately_____meters long

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60

Water and electrolytes

The large intestine can re-absorb

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61

Which substance causes the emulsification of fats

Bile

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62

Perietal

Hydrochloric acid is secreted by the___cells

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63

Chyme

Thick liquid form of food in the stomach is known as

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64

Fundus

Upper portion of the stomach is the

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65

Vitamin B-12

Substance known as intrinsic factor is necessary for the absorption of

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66

Lipase

Substance that is not a constituent of

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67

Interstitial cells

Cells that produce and secrete male sex, hormones

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68

FSH (m)

Causes the general epithelium to produce sperm

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69

Spermatgenic cells

Cells that produce sperm cells

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70

LH (m)

Promotes development of interstitial cells of testes

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71

Spermatogenesis

Process when a sperm cells are produced

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72

Testes

Primary sex organ of males

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73

23

Sperm cell contains ___ hormones

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74

120 mil

Average number of sperm present in semen is about ___ / milliliter

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75

Primary spermatocytes

In a young male spermatogenic cells are undifferentiated & are called

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76

Group of male sex hormones

Androgens

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77

Secondary spermatocytes

During meiosis the primary spermatocytes each divide to form 2?

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78

Testosterone

Most abundant male sex hormone

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79

GnRH

What hormone is produced in hypothalamus?

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80

Inhibin

Hormone inhibits, the secretion of FSH

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81

LH (f)

Hormone that causes the release of an egg

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82

Polar body

Remnant soul of meiosis with no reproductive function

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83

FSH (f)

Hormone that causes the mid maturation of an egg

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84

Ovaries

Primary sex organ of female

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85

23

Egg cell contains___ chromosomes

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86

15 to20

Each memory gland is composed of how many lobes

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87

Zygote and polar body

Following fertilization the secondary, oocyte divides to produce

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88

Endometrium

Inner mucosal layer of the uterine wall is called

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89

Vestibular glands

Structures that correspond to the Mail logo referral Glenn’s lie on either side of the vaginal opening

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90

GnRH

At eight years old females hypothalamus begins to secrete increased amounts of this hormone

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91

Estrogen and progesterone

2 groups of female sex hormones

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92

estrogen

Stimulates enlargement of many female accessory organs

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93

Corpus albicans

On day 24 of menstrual cycle corpus luteum is replaced by this fibrous connective tissue structure

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94

Convolution

Ridge in the cerebral cortex

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95

Ascending tracts

Carry sensory impulses to brain

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96

Reflex

Means to “turn back”

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97

Subarachnoid space

Space between arachnoid mater & pia mater

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98

Arbor vitae

Tree of life

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99

Synlapse

Junction between an axon of one neuron and dendrite of another

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100

Pia Mater

Membrane on the spinal cord

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