BioMed Unit 1 Test

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Medical History

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101 Terms

1

Medical History

record of past and current health; includes the health of the patient and sometimes, the patient’s family

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2

Chief complaint

the patients description of what they feel is their main health problem

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3

physical signs

pieces of evidence that shows an illness (external)

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4

symptoms

evidence a patient’s disease that they percieve (ache) —> allows the provider to see possible conditions to make a diagnosis

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5

current medical history

Keeps track of what disease/chronic illnesses that are happening now in your current life

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6

past medical history

Keeps track of what happened in your past —> past chronic illness/disease

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7

family history

keeps track of any disease/chronic illness that a family member have because it could be genetic

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8

social history

keeps track of what an idvidual does with themself - if they drink, smoke, workout, etc.

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9

tact

discretion and sensitivty dealing with others (choose words carefully)

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10

demeanor

the way you present yourself towards a patient (smile, cheery will gain people trust)

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11

empathy

the ability to understand and share feelings with another person even if you can’t really relate to them

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12

Heart Rate

the numbers of times a person’s heart beats per minute

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13

vital sign

measurement that indicates the state of a patients essential bodily function

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14

Tool used for heart rate

heart rate monitor, fingers on pulse, fitness tracker

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15

Units for heart rate

beats per minute (bpm)

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16

Normal range for heart rate

60-80 bpm but for older people it is 60-100 bpm

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17

blood pressure

pressure exerted on the walls of the blood vessels (arteries)

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18

Tools used for blood pressure

Bp cuff, sthethoscope, automatic cuff

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19

Units for blood pressure

mmHg

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20

normal range for blood pressure

120/80 mmHg

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21

body temperature

the temperature of a person’s body

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22

tools used for temperature

thermometer

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23

units for body temp

°F or °C

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24

normal range for body temp

98.6°F

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25

respiratory rate

the number of times a person breaths per minute (inahle and exhale count as 1)

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26

tools used for respiratory rate

sthethoscope (disguise it)

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27

units for respiratory rate

breaths per minute

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28

normal range for respiratory rate

12-20 bpm

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29

height

the length of a person from head to toe (not a vital sign)

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30

tools used to measure height

tape measure

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31

units for height

inches (in)

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32

weight

how much a person’s body weighs

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33

tools used for weight

scale

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34

units for weight

pounds (lb) and kilograms (kg)

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35

oxygen saturation

the amount of O2 in the blood: the amount to which hemoglobin is saturated with O2

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36

tools used for oxygen saturation

pulse oximeter

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37

units for oxygen saturation

top (blood saturation) and bottom (pulse)

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38

normal range for oxygen saturation

95%-100% is normal

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39

BMI

ratio of a person’s weight to their height

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40

tools used for BMI

formula or chart

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41

a visual exam of the outside of the eye will be done, opthalmoscope is used to look at the inside of the eye, test pupillary response - penlight (indicates the health of the eye and the nervous system), and testing visual activtity using an eye chart

What happens at an eye exam?

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42

redness, swelling, puss, and discharge can lead to an infection, corneal injury can compromise the safety of the eye and cause pain with blinking, change in color or apperance of the retina can be an indicator of disease

Signs of an eye exam?

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do a visual inspection inside: uses an otoscope (light + magnifying glass)

What happens at an ear exam?

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pain, dimished hearing, redness, bulging eardrum, fluid behind eardrum: middle ear infection —> occure secondary to something like a cold or flu, impacted cerumen (ear wax) makes it difficult to hear

Signs at an ear exam?

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45

visual inspection outside the nose, otoscope to examine the nasal passages and the throat

What happens at a throat/nose exam?

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46

swollen tonsils area sign of infection, sore throat, painful swalloing, red/infalmmed tonsils/uvula, fever, body aches, swollen lymph nodes, white patches on tonsils: strep, tonsillites: inflamation caused by virus or bacteria - enlarged tonsils, redness, sore throat

Signs at throat/nose exam?

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47

Doctors check to see if the heart has a predicatble beat and rhythm

What happens at heart exams?

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48

classic lub-dub sound with each heartbeat occurs as the two sets of values close in sequence

Normal signs in the heart?

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49

any additional sounds can show a problem with the structure of the heart

Abnormal signs in heart?

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50

doctors/nurses listen to the sounds of lungs to check functioning

What happens during lung exams?

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51

clear inhale/exhale

Normal lung signs?

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52

gurggle, “swoosh” between sounds can be a problem (asthma or allergies)

Abnormal lung signs?

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53

erythrocyte

red blood cells

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54

erythrocyte strcuture

red, biconcave (divets on both sides) discs packed with hemoglobins - no nucleus

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55

erythrocyte function

transport O2 through the body

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56

Elevated red blood cells

indicates possible low O2 and body is making extra red blood cells to deliver more O2

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57

Low red blood cells

anemia (not enough hemoglobin or RBCs to carry O2)

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58

leukocyte

white blood cells

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59

leukocyte structure

varies - has a nucleus

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60

leukocyte function

immune support —> immunity cells

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61

Elevated white blood cells

signs of infection or inflamation

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62

Low white blood cells

body is more vulnerable to infection or disease

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63

thrombocytes

platelets

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64

thrombocytes structure

cell fragments

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65

thrombocytes function

assits in clotting by adhearing to other platelets or ro damages tissue

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66

plasma structure

makes up over 50% of your blood volume; contains mostly water with other solutes; when isolated it turns a pale yellow

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plasma function

transport nutrietnts around the body

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68

elevated platelets

blood clots can form when not nescessary; can travel through circulatory system and prevent O2 delivery to tissues

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low platelets

prevents effective clotting and can contribute to blood loss

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70

hemoglobin

the protein in RBCs that binds to O2

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71

elevated hemoglobin

usually no symptons but has complications, inclduing blood clots (makes blood red)

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72

low hemoglobin

difficulty with O2 circulation

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73

hematocrit

what % of your total blood is represented by RBCs

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elevated hematocrit

RBCs make up more of your total blood volume

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75

low hematocrit

RBCs dont account for enough of your total blood volume

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76

LDL

takes cholestoral out of the body cells that need it

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HDL

takes cholesterol from the arteris to the liver for storage

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78

Telehealth

A way to set health services using technology, rather than in person contact

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79

Used on devices - electronic reminders to take medicine and go to appts

How is telehealth used?

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80

people who have busy work schedules, people with disabilities, people with anxiety/depression

Who can benefit from telehealth?

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81

food

How do obtain energy?

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82

carbohydrate

Molecules most avaible source of energy

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83

It enterer the cell through the cell membrane with the help of a glucose transport protein (GTP)

How does glucose enter the cell?

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84

elevated blood glucose

Hyperglycemia - happens when the body has too little insulin or when the body can't use insulin properly

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85

low blood glucose

Hypoglycemia is a condition in which your blood sugar (glucose) level is lower than the standard range

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86

diabetes

a metabolic condition in which glucose cannot enter the cell and blood glucose remains elevated for prolonged periods of time

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87

Type 1 Diabetes

the body does not make enough insulin - have to use artifical insulin

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88

Type 1 Diabetes cause

the immune system detroys the beta cells of the pancreas that make insulin

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89

Type 1 Diabetes problem

because the body does not produce insulin, a person will have chronically high BG levels unless Type 1 Diabetes is diagnosed and treated

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90

Type 1 Diabetes risk

family history, genetics, geography, and age

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91

Type 1 Diabetes health

take insulin as prescribed and exercise

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92

Type 2 Diabetes Cause

body dose not produce enough insulin, cells respond poorly to insulin

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93

Type 2 Diabetes problem

body produces insulin, but glucose still can’t enter the cell; blood glucose remains elevated, and pancreas wears out becasue its overproducing insulin

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94

Type 2 Diabetes risk

age, family history, physically inactive, history of gestational (preganant) diabetes

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95

Type 2 Diabetes health

take medication as prescribed, check body for spurs, blisters, ect., pratice dental hygine, moniter cholesterol, ALC, and BP

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Type 2 Diabetes symptons

frequent urination, extreme thrist, blurry vision, and fatigue

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97

PHI

protected health information

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98

HIPAA

Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act

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99

If two doctors are working together on the same patient and talk about it with only one another, if the patient's medical history has to be shared to a special agency about disease control/outbreak

When can PHI be shared?

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100

Doctors can’t share patient’s personal information with doctors who don't have that patient or others in general, can not give information to schools w/o parents consent

When can PHI not be shared?

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