Biology 140 Exam 1

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cells

the smallest units of life

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metabolism

all of the chemical reactions that occur within the cells of living things

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homeostasis

the relatively constant and self-correcting internal environment of a living organism

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adaptive traits

all organisms have these traits which help them survive and reproduce in their natural environment

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atom

a unit of matter that cannot be broken down by ordinary chemical means

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tissue

a group of similar cells that perform the same function

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organ

a structure with two or more tissues working together to perform the same function

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organ system

at least two organs working together to perform a function

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organism

an individual living thing

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population

all individuals of the same species living in a distinct geographic area

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community

all individuals of any species living together in a geographic area, they can potentially interact with each other

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ecosystem

a community and its physical environment

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biosphere

the part of Earth where life exists

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science

an approach to answering questions through systematic documentation and experimentation

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scientific method

a series of steps used to gather information and reach conclusions. the first step is making careful observations and asking questions.

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hypothesis

a testable prediction/educated guess/answer to a question

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controlled experiment

An experiment in which one variable is tested using two groups. One group is a the control group, while the other is the experimental group.

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independent variable

the one variable that is manipulated in a controlled experiment

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bacteria

a domain including unicellular prokaryotic organisms that do not tend to live in extreme environments

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archaea

a domain including unicellular prokaryotic organisms that tend to live in extreme environments

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eukarya

a domain including eukaryotic organisms whose cell(s) contain a membrane-bound nucleus and organelles

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kingdoms

domain eukarya is split up into four of these (protists, fungi, plants, and animals)

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inductive reasoning

reasoning that involves the accumulation of facts to form a conclusion or hypothesis

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deductive reasoning

reasoning that involves making a hypothesis and then drawing more specific conclusions from it

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placebo

a substance made to look like the drug being tested, but that has no effect (sugar-pill)

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double-blind study

this occurs which neither researchers nor participants know which group is receiving treatment

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matter

anything that takes up space and has mass

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element

a pure form of matter containing only one kind of atom

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isotopes

atoms that have the same number of protons but differ in the number of neutrons

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radioisotopes

unstable, radiation-emitting isotopes which can be dangerous and/or useful, depending on context

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compound

two or more elements that are chemically combined

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covalent bond

a chemical bond that forms when two or more atoms share electrons in their outer shells

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molecule

a chemical structure consisting of at least two atoms held together by covalent bonds

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ion

an atom or group of atoms that carries either a positive or negative electrical charge

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ionic bond

a chemical bond formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another. the resulting attraction is due to oppositely charged ions (one positive and one negative)

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hydrogen bond

the attraction between a slightly positively charged hydrogen atom of one water molecule and a slightly negatively charged oxygen atom of another water molecule

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acid

anything that releases hydrogen ions (H+) when placed in water (result=pH less than 7)

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base

anything that releases hydroxide ions (OH-) when placed in water (result=pH greater than 7)

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pH

a measure of hydrogen ion concentration in a solution

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buffers

substances that prevent pH values from changing dramatically

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macromolecules

large organic molecules found in living things

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polymers

chains of monomers

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monomers

building blocks of polymers

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carbohydrates

sugars and starches that provide fuel for the body. the polymers of monosaccharide monomers

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oligosaccharides

chains of a few monosaccharides joined together by dehydration synthesis

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polysaccharide

a complex carbohydrate that forms when monosaccharides join together in long chains

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lipids

compounds, such as fats, that do not dissolve in water

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triglycerides

polymers made of three fatty acids bonded to glycerol. examples are fats and oils

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saturated fatty acid

fatty acid with only single bonds linking the carbons in its tail. known as the less healthy fatty acid

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unsaturated fatty acid

fatty acid with one or more double bonds linking the carbons in its tail. known as the healthier fatty acid

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phospholipid

molecule that forms a bilayer in cell membranes, consists of a hydrophilic head and hydrophobic tail

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protein

a polymer made of monomers called amino acids

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amino acids

building blocks (monomers) of proteins

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peptide

short chain of amino acids

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polypeptide

long chain of amino acids

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enzymes

substances (almost always proteins) that speed up chemical reactions

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nucleotides

the monomers of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)

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ATP

adenosine triphosphate, the energy currency of the cell

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adenine

the base that pairs with thymine in DNA and uracil in RNA

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guanine

the base that pairs with cytosine in DNA and RNA

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organelle

a tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell

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plasma membrane

a selectively permeable phospholipid bilayer forming the boundary of the cells

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cytoplasm

a jelly-like fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended

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simple diffusion

a form of passive transport that does not involve the aid of a carrier protein

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facilitated diffusion

a form of passive transport that is aided by transport proteins

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passive transport

the movement of a substance across the concentration gradient, which does not require energy

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active transport

the movement of a substance against the concentration gradient, which requires energy

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osmosis

passive transport (diffusion) of water across a selectively permeable membrane

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hypertonic

if a cell is in a _______ solution, the concentration of solutes outside the cell is higher than the concentration inside the cell. the cell will lose water and shrink

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hypotonic

if a cell is in a ________ solution, the concentration of solutes inside the cell is higher than the concentration inside the cell. the cell will gain water and swell

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isotonic

if a cell is in a _______ solution, the concentration of solutes is equal inside and outside of the cell. the cell will maintain water and shape

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endocytosis

in this process, a region of the plasma membrane engulfs the substance to be ingested and then pinches off from the rest of the membrane, forming a vesicle

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vesicle

small membrane-bound sac that functions in moving products into, out of, and within a cell

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phagocytosis

"cell eating," in which the cell engulfs large particles or bacteria

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pinocytosis

"cell drinking," in which the cell engulfs droplets of fluid

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exocytosis

the process by which large molecules leave cells. a vesicle from inside the cell fuses with the plasma membrane and spills its contents into the extracellular fluid

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nucleus

the organelle which contains almost all of the cell's genetic information

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nuclear envelope

a double membrane that surrounds the nucleus and separates it from the cytoplasm

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chromosomes

genetic information within the nucleus is organized into these threadlike structures made of DNA and associated proteins

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nucleolus

a specialized region within the nucleus that forms and disassembles during the course of the cell cycle

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ribosome

the organelle which is the site where protein synthesis begins

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endoplasmic reticulum

part of an extensive network of channels connected to the nuclear envelope and certain organelles

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smooth endoplasmic reticulum

lacks ribosomes and functions in detoxifying alcohol and other drugs, and producing phospholipids which contribute to membranes

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rough endoplasmic reticulum

studded with ribosomes which synthesize proteins, which contribute to membranes

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golgi complex

a cell organelle that consists of a series of interconnected, flattened membranous sacs. it processes and packages proteins

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lysosome

roughly spherical organelle that digests substances imported from outside the cell and destroys old or defective cell parts

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mitochondria

the site of cellular respiration that provides the energy that cells need

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cytoskeleton

a network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement

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anabolic pathways

metabolic pathways that consume energy to build complicated molecules from simpler ones

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catabolic pathways

metabolic pathways that release energy by breaking down complex molecules into simpler compounds

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cellular respiration

the oxygen-requiring pathway by which cells break down glucose to make a total of 36 ATP. consists of 4 phases: glycolysis, transition reaction, citric acid cycle, and electron transport chain

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glycolysis

the first phase of cellular respiration, which begins by splitting glucose into smaller sugars, yielding 2 ATP. the only phase which occurs in the cytoplasm

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transition reaction

the phase of cellular respiration that links glycolysis and the citric acid cycle, occurs in the mitochondria, and yields 0 ATP

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citric acid cycle

the third phase of cellular respiration, which yields 2 ATP and occurs in the mitochondria

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electron transport chain

the final phase of cellular respiration, which yields 32 ATP and occurs in the mitochondria

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fermentation

the breakdown of glucose without oxygen, which yields only 2 ATP in the entire process

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zygote

the cell formed by the union of an egg and a sperm

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meiosis

the type of cell division that gives rise to gametes

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mitosis

the type of cell division that results in identical body cells

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23

the number of chromosomes in a haploid human cell

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