Lipids

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General formula for fatty acids

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1

General formula for fatty acids

CnH2n+1COOH

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2

When fatty acids are not attached to other molecules they are called

Free fatty acid

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3

Why are fatty acids considered to be amphipathic compounds

They have a hydrophilic carboxylic group and hydrophobic aliphatic tail

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4

Which part of fatty acid is hydrophilic?

COOH ; carboxylic group

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5

Which part of the fatty acid is hydrophobic?

Aliphatic tail

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6

What number (even / odd) straight chain fatty acids are found abundantly in plant and animals

Even number straight chains

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7

Example of fatty acid with 16 carbons

Palmitic acid

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8

Example of fatty acid with 18 carbon is

Stearic acid

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9

What possess the ability to synthesize odd- and branched-chain fatty acids?

Bacteria

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10

Why ruminant animal fat contains odd-numbered fatty acids(15)

Due to the action of bacterial in the rumen

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11

What are saturated fatty acids?

Saturated fatty acids are fatty acids where there hydrocarbon chain contains no double bonds.

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12

Butyric (n-butanoic) can be found in

Butter

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13

Caproic (n-hexanoic) can be found in ?

Coconut

Palm oils

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14

Caprylic (n-octanoic)

Coconut

Palm oil

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15

Capric (n-decanoic)

Coconut

Palm oil

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16

Lauric (n-dodecanoic)

Laurel oil

Spermaceti

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17

Myristic (n-tetradecanoic)

Butter

Fats

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18

Palmitic (n-hexadecanoic)

Palm tree

Animal

Plant fats

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19

Stearic (n-octadecanoic)

Animal

Plant fats

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20

Arachidic (n-eicosanoic) 20 carbons

Groundnut oil

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21

Behenic (n-docosanoic)

Groundnut oil

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22

Lignoceric (n-tetracosanoic)

Groundnut oil

Rapeseed oils

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23

Cerotic (n-hexacosanoic)

Wool fat

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24

What are unsaturated fatty acids?

Fatty acids that contain double bonds in there hydrocarbon chains

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25

What is a unsaturated fatty acid with one carbon carbon double boned called?

Monoethanoid acids

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26

What is an unsaturated fatty acid with two carbon carbon double boned called?

Diethanoid acids

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27

What is an unsaturated fatty acid with three carbon carbon double boned called?

Triethanoid acid

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28

What are essential fatty acid?

They are fatty acid the body is unable to synthesis but is necessary for the human diet. As it helps with memory, helps with skin, help to reduces cardiac problem and builds immunity

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29

Where do fatty acids bend?

They bend at the carbon carbon double bond

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30

Why are linoleic acid and linolenic acid considered essential fatty acids

Because they are unable to be synthesis by the body. The body contain the enzyme 4,5,6,9 desaturase meaning they are unable to form double bonds any other place other than carbon 4,5,6 and 9. In linoleic there is a carbon carbon double bond at carbon 12 which the enzyme is unable to form a double bond there. In linolenic acid there is a carbon carbon double bond at carbon 12 and carbon 15; where the enzyme is unable to form a bond there.

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31

Linolenic acid is what type of omega acid?

Omega 3 fatty acid

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32

Linoleic acid is what type of omega fatty acid

Omega 6 fatty acid

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33

Many naturally occurring fatty acids contain

2-3 double bonds in the cis position

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34

Why do carbon chain of saturated fatty acids tend to be fully extended?

To minimize the repulsion between neighboring methylene groups

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35

What type of fatty acids are solid ?

Saturated fatty acids because they do not have any bend in there chain and are tightly packed together, hence having stronger Van der Waals attractions compared to unsaturated fatty acids

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36

Why do unsaturated fatty acid have a lower melting and boiling point than saturated fatty acids?

Unsaturated fatty acids are not tightly packed together, they have double bonds in there chain that causes rigid bends in the chain that interferes with the packing causing weaker Van der Waals forces of attraction between molecules.

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37

Unsaturated fatty acids appears as _____ at room temperature?

Liquid

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38

Where are saturated fatty acid found?

In animals

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39

Where are unsaturated fatty acid found?

In plants

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40

Where are saturated fatty acids stored?

Liver

Bone

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41

Where are unsaturated fatty acid stored?

Seed

Fruits

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42

Effect of oxidative rancidity on saturated fatty acid

Observed less frequency

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43

Effect of oxidative rancidity on unsaturated fatty acid

Observed more frequently

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44

Fatty acids are important sources of ?

Fuel

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45

When metabolized what do fatty acids yield?

Large quantities of ATP

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46

What organs in the body does fatty acids fuel?

Heart

Skeletal muscle

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47

Where are enzymes responsible for desaturating fatty acids found?

In the endoplasmic reticulum

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48

How does desaturase enzyme work?

Adding cis double bonds

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49

How is the body abl to convert Stearic acid to oleic acid

When the enzyme 4,5,6,9 desaturase inserts a double bond but is incapable of inserting further double bonds.

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50

How can unsaturated fatty acids from vegetable oil have their double bond removed?

By adding hydrogen (Hydrogenation)

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51

What are hydrogenated fat?

Saturated fat even though derived from vegetable oil.

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52

What happens when unsaturated fatty acids react with gaseous hydrogen?

Forms saturated fatty acid

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53

What reagent or agents are need for the hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids?

Hydrogen gas

Catalyst : nickel, Pt

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54

What is partial hydrogenation?

When a little of hydrogen gas is used to convert some of the carbon carbon double bonds to single bonds but not all. The unsaturated bonds that remain that were normally in the cis position are changed to the trans position.

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55

Partial hydrogenation forms what type of compounds?

Semi solid trans unsaturated compounds

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56

Complete hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids forms what type of compounds?

Solid saturated compounds

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57

What is hydrogenation of fatty acids used for?

Manufacture of:

Candles

Vegetable shortening

Margarines

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58

Trans fat have what type of shape?

More linear shape

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59

Why do trans fat have a linear shape?

Because trans compounds are able to interlock, hence are able to be tightly packed together.

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60

Benefit of trans fat

Give products longer shelf life

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61

Negative impact of trans fat

Raises bad cholesterol (low density lipoprotein)

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62

Why is complete hydrogenation of fatty acid avoided?

Because saturated fatty acids are hard and brittle

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63

What is halogenation of unsaturated fatty acid?

Halogens can be added to unsaturated fatty acids at room temperature

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64

Oxidation of unsaturated fatty acid can form?

Two aldehyde

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65

If unsaturated fatty acid is exposed to excess oxygen what is formed?

Two carboxylic acids

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66

What happens to unsaturated fatty acid when comes in contact with KMnO4 under mild conditions?

The glycols are formed at the sites of double bonds

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67

What happens to unsaturated fatty acid when comes in contact with KMnO4 under vigorous conditions?

The reagent cleaves the molecules at the double bond and oxidizes the terminal portions to the carboxyl groups.

Hence two carboxylic acids are made.

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68

What is the oxidative rancidity of highly unsaturated oils?

Highly unsaturated oils are spontaneously oxidized by atmospheric oxygen and ordinary temperatures.

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69

Example of an oil that is less susceptible to oxidative rancidity

Olive oil

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70

Example of an oil that is more susceptible to oxidative rancidity

Flax seed oil

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71

Is oxidative rancidity of fatty acids a slow or fast reaction

Slow reaction

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72

Oxidative rancidity of unsaturated oils causes or forms?

Short chain fatty acids and aldehyde resulting in a rancid odor or taste to the fats.

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73

Function of lipids

Store energy

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74

Function of lipids

Acts as food storage

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75

Are lipids soluble or insoluble?

Insoluble

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76

Function of lipids

Membranes structure involvement

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77

Function of lipids

High insulating capacity

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78

Function of lipids(phospholipids)

Absorption and transport of fatty acids

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79

Function of lipids (Cholesterol)

Play a role in hormone synthesis

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80

Function of lipids (Vitamin A, D,E,K)

Carriers of fat soluble vitamins

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81

Function of lipids (Squalamine - steroid found in sharks)

Antibiotic agent

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82

Function of lipids

Aid to waterproof the body

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83

Classification of Lipids

  1. Simple lipids

  2. Compound lipids

  3. Derived lipids

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84

Another name for simple lipids

Homolipids

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85

Another name of compound lipids

Heterolipids

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86

Example of homolipids

Triacylglycerol

Oils

Waxes

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87

Example of heterolipids

Phospholipids

Glycolipids

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88

What are derived lipids?

Lipids formed or derived from simple and compound lipids

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89

Example of derived lipids

Steroids

Eicosanoids

Fat soluble vitamins

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90

Saponifiable lipids

Formation of soaps, must have linkage present

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91

For soponifcation of lipids to take place you need?

Sodium hydroxide

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92

What is the most abundant of all lipids

Triacylglycerol

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93

What makes up 98% of total dietary lipids?

Triacylglycerol

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94

The remaining 2% of dietary lipids are?

Phospholipids

Cholesterol

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95

Triacylglycerol Is the major component of what?

Fat storage in plant and animal cells mainly in adipocytes

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96

Why are Triacylglycerol much better adapted than glycogen to serve as a storage form of energy?

They are longer to digest and have a greater satiety value

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97

Are Triacylglycerol Polar or non polar?

Non polar

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98

Are Triacylglycerol Soluble to insoluble in water?

Insoluble

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99

Are Triacylglycerol less dense or more dense than water?

Less dense they float

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100

How are Triacylglycerol formed?

Via esterification. Reaction between an alcohol glycerol and a tricarboxylic acid.

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