Anatomy Semester 1 Exam

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Anatomy

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150 Terms

1

Anatomy

The study of the structure of the human body and its parts

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2

Physiology

The study of the functions of the human body and its parts

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3

Respiration

Obtaining Oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide and ATP

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4

Digestion

Physical and chemical breakdown of food

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5

Absorption

Passage of substances into body fluid (EX: Blood)

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6

Circulation

Movement of substances within body fluids

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7

Assimilation

Changing absorbed chemical substances into different chemical forms

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8

Excretion

Removal of waste

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9

Metabolism

Collective term for chemical reactions that support life

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10

Movement

Change in body motion or the motion of internal organs

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11

Responsiveness

A reaction to a stimulus

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12

Growth

Increase in body size

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13

Reproduction

Production of new organisms or cells

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14

What is metabolism?

The chemical reactions that support life

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15

What is positive feedback?

The change is intensified, instead of reversed (SHORT LIVED)

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16

What is negative feedback?

The response to change moves the variable in the opposite direction of the change from the set point. Negative feedback is the most common type of homeostatic mechanism.

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17

Definition of homeostasis

A maintenance of a new stable internal environment

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18

What are the 3 parts of a homeostatic mechanism?

Receptor, Control Center, and Effector

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19

What is a receptor

Detects and provides information about the stimuli

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20

Control Center

Decision maker that maintains the set point

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21

Effector

Muscle or gland that responds and causes the necessary change in the internal environment

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22

What organs are found in the thoracic cavity?

Houses lungs and thoracic viscera

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23

What are the TWO portions called of the abdominalpelvic cavity

Abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity

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24

What organs are found in the abdominal cavity?

Stomach, liver, spleen, kidneys, small intestines, and a portion of the large intestine

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25

What organs are found in the pelvic cavity?

End of large intestine, urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs

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26

What organs are found in the cranial cavity?

Houses the brain

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27

How must a person stand to be in anatomical position?

Standing erect, facing forward, upper limbs at your sides, palms facing forward

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28

Definition of superior

Above; towards head

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29

Definition of inferior

Below; towards ground or feet

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30

Definition of ventral

Towards the belly

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31

Definition of dorsal

Towards the back

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32

Definition of anterior

Towards the front

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33

Definition of posterior

Towards the back

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34

Definition of superfical

Close to body surface

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35

Definition of deep

More internal (organs)

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36

Definition of proximal

Close to the point of attachment to trunk (shoulders, hips)

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37

Definition of distal

Farther from the point of attachment to trunk (shoulders, hips)

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38

Definition of medial

Towards the midline (center)

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39

Definition of lateral

Away from the midline (outside)

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40

Transverse Cut

Divides body into superior and inferior (cuts in half horizontally)

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41

Sagittal Cut

Divides body into right and left

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42

Coronal (Frontal) Cut

Divides body into anterior and posterior

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43

Definition of Histology

The study of tissues

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44

Where can you find the basement membrane?

Inside epithelial cells

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45

Function of Simple Squamous?

Substances pass through easily; Lines air sacs, capillaries, blood, and lymphatic vessels

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46

Function of Stratified Squamous?

Protective function; Lines oral cavity, vagina, and canal

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47

Function of Simple Cubodial?

Secretion and absorption; lines kidney tubules, ovaries, ducts of some glands

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48

Function of Simple Columnar?

Secretion and absorption; Lines uterus, stomach, and intestines

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49

Function of Transitional?

Stretches and able to change shape; Lines ducts of mammary, sweat, salivary glands, and pancreas

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50

What is Simple epithelial tissues?

One layer of cells

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51

What is Stratified epithelial tissues?

Two or more layers of cells

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52

What is Pseudostratified epithelial tisses?

Fake layers of cells

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53

What is Squamous epithelial cells?

Flat

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54

What is Cubodial epithelial cells?

Cube

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55

What is Columnar epithelial cells?

Tall

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56

What is areolar tissue?

Type of connective tissue; forms thin, delicate membranes; Found underneath epithelium to nourish those cells. In areolar tissue there is many fibroblasts, collagen, and elastic fibers

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57

What structures are composed of dense regular connective tissue?

Found in tendons, ligaments, dermis of skin; very strong, withstands pulling (binds well).

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58

What are the functions of fibroblasts?

Most common fixed cell; secretes fibers in extra cellular matrix; large and star-shaped

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59

What are functions of macrophages?

Usually attached to fibers and can wander; defends against infection; conducts phagocytosis (cellular ingestion)

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60

What are the functions of mast cells?

Large, fixed cells; release heparin to prevent blood clotting; releases histomine which causes an inflammatory response

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61

What type of muscle cells are striated?

Cardiac and skeletal

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62

What type of muscle cells are voluntary?

Skeletal

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63

What is the Integumentary System?

Composed of skin and accessory structure (hair, nails, glands, sensory, receptors for touch/tempature)

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64

What is the epidermis?

Most superficial layer of the skin

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65

What is the dermis?

Inner layer of skin

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66

What is the hypodermis?

Deepest layer of skin; also known as the subcutaneous layer

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67

What is melanin?

How pigmented your skin tone is

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68

Where is melanin found?

In melanocyctes

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69

What types of melanin are there?

Phenomelanin and Eumelanin

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70

What pigmentation does phenomelanin have?

Lighter, red/yellow pigment

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71

What pigmentation does eumelanin have?

Dark brown pigment

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72

What determines skin color?

Hereditary, environment, and physiological factors

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73

Why is skin exposure to sunlight a good thing?

Recieve Vitiman D and nutrients

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74

What composes your fingerprints?

Dermal Papille

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75

What is keratin

Tough, fibrous, waterproof protein

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76

What is the arrector pili?

Tiny muscle that causes goosebumps when emotionally stimulated

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77

How do your blood vessels and sweat glands moderate body temperature?

Sweat gland moderate body temperature by cooling when sweat evaporates. Dermo blood vessels vasodialate (rise and open) and vasocontrict (sink and shirnk) to moderate body temperature.

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78

What is hypothermia?

Abnormally low body temperature

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79

What is hyperthermia?

Abnormally high body temperature

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80

What are the functions of bones?

Support and protect softer tissue, attachment point for muscles, blood production, and stores inorganic salts

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81

What are the structural differences between spongy and compact bone?

Compact bone is the wall of diaphysis (contains osteons) and spongy bone makes epiphysis (consists of trabeculae)

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82

What are the functional differences between spongy and compact bone?

Compact bone resists compression (strong and solid) and spongy bone is somewhat; the nutrients diffuse through canaculi

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83

What are examples of flat bone?

Skull pieces

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84

What are examples of long bones?

Arm and leg bones

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85

What is an of short bones?

Sesamoid (kneecap)

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86

What is an example of a irregular bone?

Vertebrae

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87

What is articular catilage?

Covers epiphysis

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88

What is an epiphyseal plate?

Growth line of long bones

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89

What are the functional differences between osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes?

Osteoblasts: deposit matrix into both in ossification centers

Osteoclasts: consume

Osteocytes: mature bone cells

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90

Why type of bones form via intramembranous ossification?

Flat bones

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91

Why type of bones form via endochondral ossification?

Long

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92

What is the difference between red bone marrow and yellow bone marrow

Yellow bone marrow lines the medullary cavity

Red bone marrow: contains blood stem cells that become red blood cells, white blood cells, or platelets.

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93

What bones comprise the axial skeleton?

Bones of the skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage

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94

What bones comprise the appendicular skeletion?

Bones of the pectoral girdle, upper limbs, pelvic girdle, and lower limbs

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95

What bones comprise the pelvis?

illium, ischium, pubis, sacrum, and coccyx

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96

Where is the atlas?

On the cervical vertebrae, it is known as C1, (supports head)

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97

Where is the axis?

On the cervical vertebrae, it is known as C2, (pivots to turn head)

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98

Differentiate between true, false, and floating ribs

True ribs: 7 (attached to sternum directly)

False ribs: 5 (not attached to sternum)

Floating ribs: 2 (no cartilage)

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99

What are the structural characteristics of a fibrous joint?

Held together with dense connective tissue

Syndesmosis: a sheet of dense connective tissue (tibia and fibula)

Suture: thin layer of dense connective tissue (between parietal bones of skull)

Gomphosis: bones held together by periodontal ligament (between tooth and mandible)

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100

What are the structural characteristics of a cartilaginous joint?

Held together with cartilage, largley immobile

Synchondrosis: bands of hyaline cartilage unite bones (costal cartilage)

Symphisis: pad of fibrocartilage between bones; limited movement (intervertabraal discs)

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