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Study terms and definitions
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The study of the structure of the human body and its parts
The study of the functions of the human body and its parts
Obtaining Oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide and ATP
Physical and chemical breakdown of food
Passage of substances into body fluid (EX: Blood)
Movement of substances within body fluids
Changing absorbed chemical substances into different chemical forms
Removal of waste
Collective term for chemical reactions that support life
Change in body motion or the motion of internal organs
A reaction to a stimulus
Increase in body size
Production of new organisms or cells
What is metabolism?
The chemical reactions that support life
What is positive feedback?
The change is intensified, instead of reversed (SHORT LIVED)
What is negative feedback?
The response to change moves the variable in the opposite direction of the change from the set point. Negative feedback is the most common type of homeostatic mechanism.
Definition of homeostasis
A maintenance of a new stable internal environment
What are the 3 parts of a homeostatic mechanism?
Receptor, Control Center, and Effector
What is a receptor
Detects and provides information about the stimuli
Decision maker that maintains the set point
Muscle or gland that responds and causes the necessary change in the internal environment
What organs are found in the thoracic cavity?
Houses lungs and thoracic viscera
What are the TWO portions called of the abdominalpelvic cavity
Abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity
What organs are found in the abdominal cavity?
Stomach, liver, spleen, kidneys, small intestines, and a portion of the large intestine
What organs are found in the pelvic cavity?
End of large intestine, urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs
What organs are found in the cranial cavity?
Houses the brain
How must a person stand to be in anatomical position?
Standing erect, facing forward, upper limbs at your sides, palms facing forward
Definition of superior
Above; towards head
Definition of inferior
Below; towards ground or feet
Definition of ventral
Towards the belly
Definition of dorsal
Towards the back
Definition of anterior
Towards the front
Definition of posterior
Definition of superfical
Close to body surface
Definition of deep
More internal (organs)
Definition of proximal
Close to the point of attachment to trunk (shoulders, hips)
Definition of distal
Farther from the point of attachment to trunk (shoulders, hips)
Definition of medial
Towards the midline (center)
Definition of lateral
Away from the midline (outside)
Divides body into superior and inferior (cuts in half horizontally)
Divides body into right and left
Coronal (Frontal) Cut
Divides body into anterior and posterior
Definition of Histology
The study of tissues
Where can you find the basement membrane?
Inside epithelial cells
Function of Simple Squamous?
Substances pass through easily; Lines air sacs, capillaries, blood, and lymphatic vessels
Function of Stratified Squamous?
Protective function; Lines oral cavity, vagina, and canal
Function of Simple Cubodial?
Secretion and absorption; lines kidney tubules, ovaries, ducts of some glands
Function of Simple Columnar?
Secretion and absorption; Lines uterus, stomach, and intestines
Function of Transitional?
Stretches and able to change shape; Lines ducts of mammary, sweat, salivary glands, and pancreas
What is Simple epithelial tissues?
One layer of cells
What is Stratified epithelial tissues?
Two or more layers of cells
What is Pseudostratified epithelial tisses?
Fake layers of cells
What is Squamous epithelial cells?
What is Cubodial epithelial cells?
What is Columnar epithelial cells?
What is areolar tissue?
Type of connective tissue; forms thin, delicate membranes; Found underneath epithelium to nourish those cells. In areolar tissue there is many fibroblasts, collagen, and elastic fibers
What structures are composed of dense regular connective tissue?
Found in tendons, ligaments, dermis of skin; very strong, withstands pulling (binds well).
What are the functions of fibroblasts?
Most common fixed cell; secretes fibers in extra cellular matrix; large and star-shaped
What are functions of macrophages?
Usually attached to fibers and can wander; defends against infection; conducts phagocytosis (cellular ingestion)
What are the functions of mast cells?
Large, fixed cells; release heparin to prevent blood clotting; releases histomine which causes an inflammatory response
What type of muscle cells are striated?
Cardiac and skeletal
What type of muscle cells are voluntary?
What is the Integumentary System?
Composed of skin and accessory structure (hair, nails, glands, sensory, receptors for touch/tempature)
What is the epidermis?
Most superficial layer of the skin
What is the dermis?
Inner layer of skin
What is the hypodermis?
Deepest layer of skin; also known as the subcutaneous layer
What is melanin?
How pigmented your skin tone is
Where is melanin found?
What types of melanin are there?
Phenomelanin and Eumelanin
What pigmentation does phenomelanin have?
Lighter, red/yellow pigment
What pigmentation does eumelanin have?
Dark brown pigment
What determines skin color?
Hereditary, environment, and physiological factors
Why is skin exposure to sunlight a good thing?
Recieve Vitiman D and nutrients
What composes your fingerprints?
What is keratin
Tough, fibrous, waterproof protein
What is the arrector pili?
Tiny muscle that causes goosebumps when emotionally stimulated
How do your blood vessels and sweat glands moderate body temperature?
Sweat gland moderate body temperature by cooling when sweat evaporates. Dermo blood vessels vasodialate (rise and open) and vasocontrict (sink and shirnk) to moderate body temperature.
What is hypothermia?
Abnormally low body temperature
What is hyperthermia?
Abnormally high body temperature
What are the functions of bones?
Support and protect softer tissue, attachment point for muscles, blood production, and stores inorganic salts
What are the structural differences between spongy and compact bone?
Compact bone is the wall of diaphysis (contains osteons) and spongy bone makes epiphysis (consists of trabeculae)
What are the functional differences between spongy and compact bone?
Compact bone resists compression (strong and solid) and spongy bone is somewhat; the nutrients diffuse through canaculi
What are examples of flat bone?
What are examples of long bones?
Arm and leg bones