Sociology Exam 1

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Sociologists do:

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102 Terms

1

Sociologists do:

Study multiple people, offer multiple answers to one question, can’t offer easy answers

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Sociology

the scientific study of human society

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3

Social sciences

study the social features of humans and how they interact and change

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Natural Sciences

study physical features of nature and the ways they interact and change

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5

Theory

a perspective or framework that seeks to explain problems, actions, or behavior and predict how one change will lead to others

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Methods

mechanisms through which a topic can be researched with scientific rigor

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7

Auguste Comte

Coined the term sociology in 1838, believed that sociology should be a science,

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8

Positivism: Auguste Comte

the belief that there are scientific laws that govern the social world

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9

Harriet Martineau

First recognized woman sociologist, translated Comte into English, wrote the first book on sociological methods, undertook critical studies of slavery, women’s rights, and gender inequality

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10

Herbert Spencer

Social Darwinist, “survival of the fittest”, social inequality is seen as natural

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11

Karl Marx

Access to means of production, bourgeosie vs. proletariat

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12

Karl Marx: Historical materialism

the study of human history as viewed through material conditions or the social relations that result from production

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13

Marx’s Blind Spots

Growth of service sector, religion and politics, higher wages, better working conditions, and welfare-state benefits

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14

Max Weber

studied and critiqued Marx, verstehen= understanding, “pure types” or “ideal types”

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Weber: interpretive sociology

approach sociology from the perspective of people involved in social behavior

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16

Emile Durkheim

Division of labor, created anomie and positivist sociology

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Durkheim: anomie

feeling of aimlessness or despair that results from life becoming unpredictable

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18

Durkheim: Positivist sociology

belief that the social world can be described and predicted

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19

“Chicago School”

American sociology began at University of Chicago

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20

Social ecology

how humans are shaped by their social and physical environments

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21

Looking-glass self: Cooley

“Just like the reflections in a mirror; the self depends on the perceived responses of others; or as he puts it each to each a looking glass reflects the other that doth pass”

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22

Self: Mead

the ability to take others people’s point of view

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23

Generalized other: Mead

internalized view of society as whole

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Jane Addams

Sociologist, social reformer, and activist, co-founded Hull House

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25

Thomas Theroem

“If situations are defined as real, they are real in their consequences”

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26

W.E.B Du Bois

Co-founded NAACP, Atlanta Sociological Laboratory, first sociologist to undertake an ethnography studying African Americans

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27

Double Consciousness

looking at oneself through the eyes of others

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28

Macrosociology

examines the wider structures, interdependent social institutions, global and historical processes of life

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29

Microsociology

action, interaction, and the construction of meaning within small groups

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Mesosociology

intermediate level of analysis embracing study of formal organizations and social movements

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Functionalism

each part of society is related and each part serves an important purpose, social order is maintained through cooperation and consensus focuses on the macro-level

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Social Institutions

networks of structures in society that work to socialize groups of people within them

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Manifest function

explicit/intended consequence

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Latent function

hidden/unintended consequence

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35

Dysfunction

an element or process of society that may actually disrupt the social system or reduce its stability

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36

Conflict theory

conflict and competition are the animating forces of society, focuses on the macro-level

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37

Symbolic Interactionism

symbols and meanings within interactions, micro-level (interpersonal interactions)

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38

Postmoderism

belief in subjectivity, emphasizes social constructs, views society as lacking consensus, often self-referential

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Sociological Imagination

the ability to connect the most basic, intimate aspects of an individual’s life to seemingly impersonal and remote historical forces

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40

Research methods

the tools we use to examine social phenomena ethically and with scientific rigor

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41

Reliability

the degree to which research yields consistent results

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42

External reliability

can the study be replicated by an outside researcher

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43

Internal reliability

have all the researchers in your team interpreted data in the same way?

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44

Validity

the degree to which the research measures accurately reflect the phenomena under study

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45

External validity

can the results be generalized beyond this study?

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Internal validity

did the instruments and procedures measure what they are supposed to measure?

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47

Qualitative research

focuses on in-depth understanding of motivations or perspectives, ideal for exploratory or investigative projects, provides detail and complexity, generalizations are unwise

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48

Quantitative research

ideal for large data asking narrowly-defined questions, goal is to transform data into numbers so statistical tests can be performed, provides indications of overall trends, generalizations are accepted

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Generalization

a claim that your findings are indicative of a larger group that the one studied

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50

Research designs

a detailed plan or method for obtaining data scientifically

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Survey research

relatively large group of people, standardized set of questions, range of standard answers, responses transformed into numbers

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Population

everyone who could participate in your study, based on the parameters of your study

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Sample

everyone who does participate in your study

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Random sampling

every member of an entire population being studied has the same change of being studied

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Snowball sampling

a type of nonrandom sample in which the researcher begins with one case then based on information about interrelated relationships from that case, identifies other cases and then repeats the process

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Convenice sampling

a type of nonrandom sample in which the researcher includes those whom the researcher includes those whom are most accessible to participate in your study

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Anoymity

participants are unidentifiable to the researcher

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Confidentiality

researcher is able to identify participants, but will not disclose their personal information

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Social desirability bias

occurs in survey research in which respondents give a “normative” response or socially acceptable answer rather than a truthful answer

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60

Correlation

does a relationship exist between variables?

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61

Casuality

does a change in 1 variable cause a change in another variable?

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Hawthorne effect

what happens when we know we are being watched?

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Positionality

recognition of where you stand with respect to relative power in interactions

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Reflexivity

analyzing and critically considering our role in and effect on our research

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Interviews

a conversation between a researcher and participant in which the researcher seeks to understand the meaning participants make as well as the central themes in their lives

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Content analysis

researchers examine patterns of meaning within written text, audio, visual, or other communication mediums

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67

Ethnography

the study of the entire social setting through extended systematic fieldwork

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Field notes

accounts describing experiences and observations the researcher has made while participating in an intense and involved manner

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Historical-comparitive

researchers examine different cultures or historical time periods in order to better understand the social world

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Positionality

recognition of where you stand with respect to relative power in interactions

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71

Reflexivity

analyzing and critically considering our role in, and effect on our research

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Culture

patterns of and for behavior acquired and transmitted by traditions, technologies, practices, languages, symbols, beliefs, values, ideologies, and material objects that people create to deal with real life problems

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Society

the totality of people and social relations in a given geographic space, who share and actively produce a common culture

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Material culture

all of the things that humans make or adapt from raw stuff of nature, includes technology

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Non material culture

intangible elements of culture: symbols, social norms, values, beliefs, and ideologies

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Symbols

gestures, objects, and words that form the basis oh human communication, can evoke emotion

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Language

abstract system of word meaning and symbols for all aspects of culture

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Sapir-Whorf theory

the language we speak directly influences and reflects the way we think and experience the world

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Social norms

established standards of behavior maintained by a society

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80

Sanctions

rewards or punishments that serve to enforce social norms

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Positive sanctions

rewards

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Negative sanctions

punishments

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Formal sanctions

carried out by a regulatory body (usually codified or written)

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Informal sanctions

usually occuring in interpersonal interactions, not punishable by authority

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Folkways

casual norms or customs typically used for convenience

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86

Mores

strict norms that reflect important societal values

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Taboos

norms that society holds so closely that any violation would elict extreme disapproval

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Values

general or abstract ideas what is good vs. bad

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Beliefs

ideas about what is real and what is not

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Ideology

comprehensive vision drawing upon a shared set of beliefs and values

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Dominant ideology

the set of cultural beliefs and practices that help to maintain powerful social, economic, and political interests

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Conspicuos consumption

the practice of accumulating certain goods in order to increase one’s social prestige and/or standing

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Ethnocentrism

the tendency to assume that one’s own culture and way of life represent the norm or are superior to all others

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Cultural relativism

viewing people’s behavior from the perspective of their own culture, placing a priority on understanding other cultures

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95

Cultural appropriation

occurs when members of a dominant group appropriate the culture of a less privileged group

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Cultural hegemony

the idea that those in power can manipulate societal views and mores so that the view of the powerful becomes the dominant worldwide view within society

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Socializtion

the lifelong, dynamic process by which society molds its members into being properly social beings

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98

Role conflict

the tension caused by competing demands between two or more roles pertaining to different statuses

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Role strain

incompatability among roles corresponding to a single status

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100

Looking glass self

“self” emerges from assuming the perspective of others and imagining how they see us

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