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Mechanical model of plyometrics exercise

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Mechanical model of plyometrics exercise

- elastic energy in the musculotendinous components is increased with a rapid stretch and then stored

- if a concentric muscle action follows immediately, the stored energy is released, increasing the total force production

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Series elastic component (SEC)

When stretched (eccentric) stores elastic energy that increases the force produced (this is the workhouse and is primarily the tendon)

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Contractile component (CC)

Primary source of muscle force during concentric muscle action (Actin, myosin, and cross bridges)

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Parallel elastic component (PEC)

Exerts a passive force with unstimulated muscle stretch (epimysium, perimysium, endomysium, and sarcolemma)

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Neurophysiological model of plyometrics exercise

Involves potentiation (change in the force-velocity characteristics of the muscle’s contractile components caused by stretch) of the concentric muscle action by use of the stretch reflec

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Stretch reflex

The body’s involuntary response to an external stimulus that stretches the muscles

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Stretch-shortening cycle (SSC)

- both mechanical and neurophysiological models

- employs both the energy stores of the SEC and stimulation of the stretch reflex to facilitate maximal increase in muscle recruitment over a minimal amount of time

- a fast rate of musculotendinous stretch is vital to muscle recruitment and activity resulting from SSC

- a rapid eccentric muscle action stimulates the stretch reflex and storage of elastic energy, which increase the force produced during the subsequent concentric action

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SSC Phase 1


Action: stretch of the agonist muscle

Physiological event: elastic energy is stored in the series elastic component; more spindles are stimulated

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SSC Phase II


Action: pause between phases I and III

Physiological event: type of different nerves synapse with alpha motor neurons; alpha motor neurons transmit signals to agonist muscle groups

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Action: shortening of agonist muscle fibers

Physiological event: elastic energy is released from the series elastic component; alpha motor neurons stimulate the agonist muscle group

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Plyometrics intensity

- the amount of stress placed on muscles, connective tissues, and joints

- controlled by the tupe of plyometrics drill

- as intensity increases, volume should decrease

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Plyometrics frequency

- typical recovery time guideline: 48-72 hours b/w plyometrics sessions

- perform two or three plyometrics sessions per week

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Plyometrics recovery

- recovery for depth jumps may const of 5-10 s of rest b/w repetitions and 2-3 mins bw sets

- time bw sets is determined by a proper work to rest ration (1:5 to 1:10)

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Plyometrics volume

- expressed as foot contacts per workout (or in distance for bounding drills)

- for upper body drills, volume is expressed as the number of throws or catches per workout

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Plyometrics beginner volume

80-100 contacts

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Plyometrics intermediated volume

100-120 contacts

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Plyometrics advanced volume

120-140 contacts

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Plyometrics adolescents

Under proper supervision and with an appropriate program prepubescent and adolescent children may perform plyometrics exercises. Depth jumps and high-intensity lower body plyometrics are contraindicated for this pop

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Plyometrics masters

- program should include no more than 5 low to moderate intensity exercises

- volume should be lower - include fewer total foot contacts than a standard plyometrics training program

- recovery time plyometrics workouts should be 3-4 days

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Plyometrics technique

-proper footwear

- proper landing technique is essential to prevent injury and improve performance in lower body plyometrics

- for lower body plyometrics, it was previously thought that the athlete’s 1RM squat should be at lest 1.5 times her or her body weight

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Plyometrics balance

- each test position must be held for 30 seconds

- beginner athlete must stand one long for 30 s without falling

- athlete beginning an advanced plyometrics program must maintain a single-leg half square for 30 seconds without falling

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Plyometrics physical characteristics

Athletes who weigh more than 220 pounds should not perform depth jumps from heights greater than 18 inches

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Plyometrics landing surface

to prevent injuries, landing surface used for lower body plyometrics must possess adequate shock-absorbing properties (grass-field, suspended floor, rubber mat)

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Plyometrics training area

- for most standing, box, and depth jumps, only a minimal surface area is needed

- most bounding and running drills require at least 30 m (33 yds) of straightaway, though some drills may require 100 m (109 yds)

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Plyometrics equipment

- boxes should range in height from 6-42 inches

- boxes should have landing surfaces of at least 18 by 24 inches

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plyometrics depth jumping

- height = 16-42 inches with 30-32 being the norm

- 18 in or less for athletes who weight over 220 pounds

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The skills and abilities needed to achieve high movement velocities

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Change of direction

The skills and abilities needed to explosively change movement direction, velocities, or modes

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The skills and abilities needed to change direction, velocity, or mode in response to a stimulus (decelerate and accelerate again)

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Execute movement techniques

Athletes must skillfully apply force

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Variables for force relative to the time available to produce force

Rate of force development (RFD) and impulse

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- change in momentum, either accelerating or decelerating, resulting from a force measured as the produce of force and time

- a basic objective of training is to move the force-time curve up and to the left, generating greater impulse and momentum during the limited time over which force is applied

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Rate of force development

The development of max force in min time, typically used as an index of explosive strength

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Neurophysiological basis for speed

- nervous system


-increased sensitivity of muscle spindles

-Spring mass model

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Speed nervous system

Increases in neural drive (aka neuromuscular activity = increase in the rate at which action potentials occur) occur due to strength and plyometrics training and result in increased muscular force production and the rate of force production

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Speed stretch shortening cycle

-acutely, SSC actions tend to increase mechanical efficiency and impulse via elastic energy recovery

- chronically they upregulate muscle stiffness and enhance neuromuscular activation

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Spring-mass model (SMM)

Sprinting is produced by spring-like actions within the muscle

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Increase neural drive

- multi joint movements exploiting elastic-reflexive mechanisms

- emphasize quality and technique, use brief work bouts and frequent rest pause

- heavy resistance training and plyos - complex training

- post-activation potentiation

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Sprint speed

Determined by stride length and stride rate; more successful sprinters tend to have longer stride lengths and a more frequent stride rate. These findings suggest that RFD and proper biomechanics are two of the primary limiting factors influencing sprint performance

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Running speed training goals

- emphasize brief ground support times as a means of achieving rapid stride rate (requires high levels of explosive strength)

- emphasize further development of the stretch-shortening cycle (higher achievers at top speed sprinting produce high forces in a shorter stance phase using the SSC)

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Speed Strength

- transfer of strength improvements to sprinting may require an emphasis on the specificity of training

- this transfer of training effect deals with the degree of performance adaptation and my result from the similarities between the movement patterns, peak force, RFD, acceleration, and velocity patterns of an exercise and the sporting environment

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Speed development

- train stride rate over stride length

- assistance training e.g. over speed training (down hill running, rope towing, bungee cored pulls) increases stride rate

- resistance training (sled towing, wind resistance, incline sprinting, sled pushing) improve RFD, largely stride length and some stride frequency

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Methods to develop agility

- strength (plyos, lunges, squats)

- change of direction ability - change of direction drills

- perceptual cognitive ability - improve anticipation and decision making time

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Perceptual-cognitive ability

- agility activities should begin by adding a perceptual-cognitive component to change-of-direction drills

- ie decelerations or the z-drill can evolve into agility drills through inclusion of a generic stimulus such as a whistle, coach command, or flashing arrow/light

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Speed and Agility Program design

- athletes should conduct speed and agility tasks early in a training session

- typically 2-3 sessions per week

- session may be 15 minutes

- rest periods 30s-3 min depending on work time

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Plyos for LDR

- improve running economy

- improve muscle/tendon stiffness (via mechanical model)

- increase stride length

- strength an plyos

- repetition continuum

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Aerobic exercise economy

- a measure of the energy cost of activity at a given exercise velocity

- an improvement in exercise economy can enhance maximal aerobic power (VO2max) and lactate threshold

- running economy

- tendon stiffness

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Running economy training

Plyometrics → resistance → training phase → speed, volume, intervals, hills, etc

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Running economy environment

Altitude → heat

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Running economy physiology

VO2max → adolescent development → metabolic factors → influence of different running speeds

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Running economy biomechanics

Flexibility → elastic stored energy → mechanical factors → GRF

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Running economy anthropometry

Limb morphology → muscle stiffness, tendon length → body weight and composition

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Running economy

Factors affecting performance in distance runners

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Design an Aerobic endurance program

1. Exercise mode

2. Training frequency

3. Training intensity

4. Exercise duration

5. Exercise progression

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exercise mode

- the specific activity performed by the athlete: cycling, running, swimming, etc

- the more specific the training mode is to the sport, the greater the improvement in performance

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Aerobic training intensity

- high-intensity aerobic exercise increases cardiovascular and respiratory function and allows for improved oxygen delivery to the working muscles (overload principle is important)

- increasing exercise intensity may also improve oxidative capacity of type II fibers

- hear rate (most frequent used method for prescribing aerobic exercise intensity → 60-70% THR up to 75-85% THR (stronger relationship between vo2 and HRR compared to MHR)

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Karvonen method

- age predicted max heart rate (APMHR) = 220-age

- heart rate reserve (HRR) = AMPHR - RHR

- Target heart rate (THR) = (HRR x exercise intensity) +RHR

- do this calculation twice to determine the target heart rate range (THRR)

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Percentage of maximal heart rate method

- age predicted max heart rate (APMHR) = 220-age

- THR=APMHR x exercise intensity

- do this calculation twice to determine he THRR

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Ratings of perceived exertion scales (RPE scale)

- can be used to regulate intensity of aerobic endurance training across changes in fitness level

- may be influenced by external environmental factors

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Metabolic equivalents (METs)

- one MET is equal to 3.5 mlkg-1min-1 of oxygen consumption and is considered the amount of oxygen required by the body at rest

- walking 2.5 mph = 3

- resistance training = 6

- walking 5 mph = 8.3

- running 6.7 mph = 10.5

- running 10 mph = 14.5

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Power measurement

- cyclists may use power-measuring cranks and hubs to regulate exercise intensity

- metabolic rate is closely related to mechanical power production

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Aerobic Exercise duration

- length of time of the training session

- < 70% VO2max for several hours

- > 85% VO2max for 20-30 min

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Aerobic exercise program

- progression of an aerobic endurance program involves increasing the frequency, intensity, and duration

- frequency, intensity, or duration should not increase by more than 10% each week

- when it is not feasible to increase frequency or duration, progression can occur with intensity manipulation

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Long, slow distance training

- training distance greater than race distance (30 minutes to 2 hours)

- sometimes 2-20 miles

- intensities equivalent to 70% of VO2max

- adaptations from this exercise include the following: increased mitochondrial energy production, enhances the body’s ability to clear lactate, causes an eventual shift of Type IIx fibers to Type I fibers

- intensity is lower than that of competition, which may be a disadvantage if too much LSD training is used

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Pace/tempo training

- intensity at or slightly above competition intensity, corresponding to the lactate threshold; 80-90% HRR

- helps improve running economy and increase lactate threshold

-steady pace/tempo training

- tempo run

-intermittent pace/tempo training

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Steady pace/tempo training

20-30 minutes of continuous training at the lactate threshold: 15 min warm up, a 3-6 mile tempo run, and 15 min cool down

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Intermittent pace/tempo training

Series of shorter intervals with brief recovery periods: 15 min warm up, 8 min hard run, 2 min jog, 8 min hard, 2 min jog, 8 min hard, 15 min cool down

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interval training

- exercise at an intensity close to VO2max for intervals of 3-5 minutes. Work:rest ration should be 1:1

- allows athletes to train at intensities close to VO2max for a greater amount of time; >85% HRR

- it increases VO2max and enhances anaerobic metabolism

- interval training should be used sparingly, and only when training athletes with a firm aerobic endurance training base

- interval workout

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High-Intensity interval training (HIIT)

- shorter rest than interval training

- uses repeated high-intensity bouts interspersed with brief recovery periods

- several minutes above 90% of VO2max / > 90% HRR

- may be effective for improving running economy and running speed

- an example for long-interval HIIT is >2-3 minutes at 90% VO2max, with relief bouts of <2 minutes

- a short interval may have work periods <45 seconds

- fat loss

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Fartlek Training

- less structured than interval; varying work times (similar to a game such as soccer)

- easy running (70% VO2max) combined with hills or short, fast bursts (85-90% VO2max); same as HRR (jog, sprint, jog, sprint, jog, etc) 20-69 min total

- can be adapted for cycling and swimming

- benefits are likely to include enhanced VO2max, increased lactate threshold, improved running economy and fuel utilization

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Cross training

A mode of training that can be used to maintain general conditioning in athletes during periods of reduced training due to injury or during recovery from a training cycle (i.e cross country runner swims or bikes)

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- occurs when the athlete reduces the training duration or intensity or stops training altogether due to a break in the program, injury, or illness

- in the absence of an appropriate training stimulus, the athlete experiences a loss of the physiological adaptations brought by training

- in as little as 2 weeks

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- reduction of training duration and intensity with an increased emphasis on technique work and nutritional intervention (often reduce volume while intensity and frequency are maintained/helps in recovery and promotes increase in muscle/liver glycogen stores)

- objective of tapering the training regiment is to attain peak performance at the time of competition (most common model is swimming)

- decrease training volume by 60% over 3-4 weeks

- 10-15% every couple days - progressive, linear taper

- 50% immediate decrease - step taper

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Aerobic Resistance Training

- benefits may include: improvement in short-term exercise performance, faster recovery from injuries, prevention of overuse injuries and reduction of muscle imbalances

- it can improve hill climbing, bridging gaps between competitors during breakaways, and the final sprint

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Aerobic altitude training

\- goal to increase RBC concentration; gains of 1-2% in performance

\- acclimatization may occur between 12 and 14 days at moderate altitudes up to 2,300 m, but can take up to several months (low:
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A theoretical and practical construct that allows for the systematic, sequential, and integrative programming of training interventions in mutually dependent period of time in order to induce specific physiological adaptations that underpin performance outcomes

- variation in volume in intensity to optimize gains

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General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)




one of the foundational concerts from which periodization theories have been developed

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Alarm phase

Initial phase of training, when stimulus is first recognized and performance generally decreases in response to fatigue

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Resistance phase

Second phase, in which adaptation occurs and the system is returned to baseline or, in most instances, elevated above baseline

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Super compensation phase

New level of performance capacity that occurs in response to the adaptive response found in step 2

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Overtraining phase

If stressors are too high, performance can be further suppressed and overtraining syndrome can result

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Stimulus-fatigue-recovery-adaptation theory

- an extension of the GAS suggesting that training stimuli produce a general response

- the greater overall magnitude of a workload, the more fatigue accumulates and the longer the delay effort complete recover so that adaptation can occur

- the greater intensity/duration of stimulus, the greater the recovery period must be

- involutivos or detraining occurs if no new training stimulus is introduced

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Fitness-fatigue paradigm

- training results in both fitness and fatigue

- high training loads result in both elevated fatigue and fitness levels. If loads are too high and fatigue exceeds fitness, preparedness will decrease

- low training loads result in minimal fitness or fatigue

- important to vary training loads

- fatigue dissipates faster than fitness allowing for elevated preparedness with use of appropriate training strategies

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Macro cycle

Typically an entire training year but may also be a period of many months up to four years (Olympic athletes)

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Two or more micro cycles together lasting 2-6 weeks, typically four weeks (ex hypertrophy training)

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Typically one week, but could be several days to two weeks (ex hypertrophy week 1 may be slightly difference (exercise selection) than hypertrophy week 2)

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Periodized training plans

Systematically shift training force from general nonspecific activities of high volume and low intensity toward lower volume and higher intensity activities over a period of many weeks or months to help reduce the potential for overtraining while optimizing performance capacities

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Preparatory period

-The initial period is usually the longest and occurs \n during the time of the year when there are no \n competitions and technical, tactical, or sport-specific \n work is limited (mostly off-season). \n – Emphasis on establishing a base level of conditioning \n – Hypertrophy/strength endurance phase \n • Low to moderate intensity (50-75% 1RM) and high volumes \n (3 to 6 sets of 8-20 repetitions) \n – Basic strength phase \n • High intensity (80-95% of the 1RM) and moderate to high \n volume (2 to 6 sets of 2 to 6 repetitions)

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First transition period

- a linkage between the preparatory and competitive periods

- focus on strength and is translation to power development

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Strength/power phase

- low to very high loads (30-95% of 1 RM, depending on the exercise) and low volumes (2-5 sets for 2-5 reps)

- 80% 1RM power clean

- 50-70% 1RM smith machine bench press throw

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Competitive period

- For peaking, athletes use very high to low \n intensity (50% to ≥93% of the 1RM) and very low \n volume (1 to 3 sets of 1 to 3 repetitions). \n • Peaking is often related to one event or a 1-2 week \n competition \n – For maintenance, athletes use moderate to high \n intensity (85-93% of the 1RM) with moderate \n volumes (about 2 to 5 sets of 3 to 6 repetitions). \n • Team sports over a season use maintenance

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Second Transition period (active rest)

- provides a period of time in which athletes can rehabilitate injuries an refresh both physically and mentally before beginning a new annual training plan or macro cycle

- < 4 weeks

- play sports and leisure activities (Walk, cycle, swim, golf)

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Off-season periodization

Preparatory period: bw the end of the postseason and beginning of the preseason

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Preseason periodization

First transition period: leads up to the first contest, with a focus on the strength/power phase of resistance training; includes recovery periods of low volume and intensity

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Contains all the contests. Long seasons require multiple mesocycles arranged around key contests

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Second transition period: after the final contest

Active or relative rest for the athlete before beginning the next year’s off season or preparatory period

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Linear periodization

Traditional resistance training periodization model with gradually progressive mesocyclone increases in intensity over time

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Undulating/nonlinear periodization

A periodization model alternative that involves large fluctuations in the load and volume assignments for core exercises

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Ideal performance state

– Absence of fear (no fear of failure) \n – No thinking about or analysis of performance \n – A narrow focus of attention on the activity itself \n – A sense of effortlessness \n – A sense of personal control \n – A distortion of time and space; time slows

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A blend of physiological and psychological activation in an individual: refers to the intensity of motivation at any given moment; positive

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