Biology 102 Exam 3

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Chapters 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17

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Cleavage

When the zygote undergoes rapid mitotic divisions

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Blastula

An embryo that has over 100 cells after cleavage has taken place

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Gastrulation

When cells migrate to the interior of the blastula

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Gastrula

The embryo has different layers of embryonic tissues

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Larva

Is a sexually immature stage and is morphologically distinct from the adult

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Metamorphosis

The process by which an animal physically develops after brith or hatching

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Paleozoic Era

542-251 Million years ago. Called the Cambrian period/explosion. Evolving predator-prey relationships. Rise in atmospheric oxygen. Evolution of the Hot gene complex

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Mesozoic Era

251-65.5 Million years ago. Coral reefs emerged. Dinosaurs were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates. First mammals emerged

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Cenozoic Era

65.5 Million years ago to the present. Mass extinctions of terrestrial and marine animals (nonflying dinosaurs and marine reptiles). Modern mammals and insects diversified (adaptive radiation)

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Cambrian Explosion

The earliest fossil appearance of many major groups of living animals

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Body Plan

A set of morphological and developmental traits integrated into an animal (3 types)

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Radial Symmetry

An organism can be divided into identical halves by any plane passing through the center of its body

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Bilateral Symmetry

An organism can be divided into two equal halves that are mirror images of each other along a central axis

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Tissue

A collection of specialized cells isolated from other tissues by membrane layers

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Ectoderm

The germ layer covering the embryo’s surface/outermost germ layer

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Endoderm

The innermost germ layer

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Mesoderm

The middle germ layer

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Diploblastic

An animal that has an ectoderm and endoderm

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Triploblastic

An animal that has an intervening third layer (mesoderm)

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Organogenesis

The process of organs developing from the embryonic germ layers

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Coelomate

An animal that possess a true coelom. Organs are well organized in a coelomates

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Coelom

A true body cavity and is derived from mesoderm

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Pseudocoelomate

An animal that possess a pseudocoelom. Organs are held loosely

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Pseudocoelom

A body cavity derived from mesoderm and endoderm

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Acoelomates

An organism that lack a body cavity

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Invertebrates

An organism that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column/backbone (4 kinds)

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Sponges

A sedentary organism that live in both fresh and marine waters that lack tissues and organs. They are suspension feeds. Most are hermaphrodites

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Hermaphrodites

An organisms that lacks functions as a male and female

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Tapeworm

An organism that are parasites of vertebrates and lack a digestive system and absorb nutrients from the host’s intestine

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Rotifers

A tiny organism that inhabits fresh water, ocean, and damp soil. They have an alimentary canal. They produce by parthenogenesis. Some species lack a male sex

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Alimentary Canal

A digestive tube with a mouth and anus that lies within a fluid-filled pseudocoelom

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Parthenogenesis

When females produce offspring from unfertilized eggs

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Insects

Are the organism with the most amount of species. They live in almost every terrestrial habitat and in fresh water. They have several complex organ systems.They may undergo metamorphosis

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Metamorphosis

The process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a relatively abrupt change in animal’s body structure (2 types)

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Complete Metamorphosis

Has 4 stages: egg, larva, pupa, adult

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Complete Metamorphosis Examples

Beetles, bees, ants, butterflies, moths, fleas, mosquitoes

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Incomplete Metaorphosis

Has 3 stages: egg, nymph, adult

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Nymph

A young organism that resemble adults but are smaller and lack adult features

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Incomplete Metamorphosis Examples

Grasshoppers, cockroaches, termites, praying mantis, crickets, lice

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Vertebrates

An organism with a backbone

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Shared qualities of vertebrates:

  1. A backbone enclosing a spinal cord

  2. An elaborate skull

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Gnathostones

A vertebrate with jaws

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Shared qualities of gnathostomes:

  1. Jaws

  2. An additional duplication of Hox genes

  3. An enlarged forebrain associated with enhanced smell and vision

  4. A lateral line system that is sensitive to vibrations (aquatic)

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Tetrapods

A vertebrate with limbs

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Shared qualities of tetrapods:

  1. 4 limbs and feet with digits

  2. Ears for detecting airborne sounds

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Example of a tetrapod:

Amphibian

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Amphibian

An organism that starts life as an aquatic larva and then turns into a terrestrial adult

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Amniotes

A group of tetrapods that have a terrestrially adapted egg and are reptiles and mammals

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Amniotic Egg

An egg that contains membranes that protect the embryo on a terrestrial ecosystem

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Example of an amniote:

Reptile

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Reptile

An amniote that has scales on their skin that create waterproof barrier and lay their amniotic eggs on land

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Amnion

The innermost membrane of amniotic eggs and it encloses the embryo

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Amniotic Fluid

A fluid that surrounds the fetus and protects it from heat and physical injury

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Ectothermic

A type of organism that absorbs external heat as the main source of body heat (birds and mammals)

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Endothermic

A type of organism that is capable of keeping the body warm from within, through matabolism (most invertebrates)

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Adaptations of birds that enabled flight:

  1. Wings with certain feathers

  2. Lack of urinary bladder

  3. Females with one ovary

  4. Small gonads and loss of teeth

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The body plan that categorizes animals:

  1. Symmetry

  2. Tissues

  3. Body Cavities

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Mammals

A vertebrate characterized by the presence of derived characters

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Derived characters that mammals have:

  1. Mammary glands that produce milk

  2. Hair

  3. A larger brain than other vertebrates of equivalent size

  4. Differentiated teeth

  5. 3 middles ear bones

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Kinds of teeth:

  1. Incisors

  2. Canines

  3. Premolars

  4. Molars

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Kinds of ear bones:

  1. Malleus

  2. Incus

  3. Stapes

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Monotremes

A small group of egg-laying mammals that have a cloaca

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Cloaca

A single common urinary, defecatory, and reproductive duct

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Example of monotremes:

Platypus

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Marsupials

A mammal that gives brith to undeveloped young

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Marsupium

A maternal pouch which completes embryonic development for young marsupials

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Example of marsupial:

Kangaroos

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Eutherians (Placentals)

A mammal that give brith to infants that completed their embryonic development within the uterus and are fully developed

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Example of eutherian:

Humans

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Derived characters of primates:

  1. A large brain and short jaws

  2. Forward looking eyes close together providing deep perception

  3. Complex social behavior and parental care

  4. A fully opposable thumb for grasping

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Shared derived characters that distinguish humans from apes:

  1. Upright posture and bipedal locomotion

  2. Larger brains, language capabilities, and symbolic thought

  3. The manufacture and use of complex tools

  4. Shortened jaw and shorter digestive tract

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Paleoanthropology

The study of human origins

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Hominins

An organism that is more closely related to humans than to chimpanzees (6-7 million years ago)

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Australopiths

A group of hominins living between 4-2 million years ago that has the oldest evidence of tool use. They didn’t fully master walking long distances on 2 legs

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Homo ergaster

A group of hominins that fully mastered walking long distances on 2 legs and showed a decrease in sexual dimorphism

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Homo erectus

A group of hominins that originated in Africa about 1.8 million years ago and was the first hominin to leave Africa

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Neanderthals

An organism that were closely related to modern humans (99.7% of DNA) and lived in Europe and Asia. They were thick-boned with a larger brain than humans. They had a low surface to volume ratio with shorter legs and a bigger body

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Homo sapiens

An organism that appeared in Africa about 200,000 years ago and were the first group to show evidence of symbolic and sophisticated thought. The FOXP2 gene gave them language capabilities

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FOXP2 gene

A gene that is essential for human language and underwent intense natural selection over the last 200,000 years

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Anatomy

The study of the structure of body parts and their relationship to one another

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Physiology

The study of the function of body parts and how they work to carry out life-sustaining activities

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Interstitial Fluid

A fluid that fills the space between cells and allows for the movement of material into and out of cells

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Necessary life functions:

  1. Maintaining boundaries

  2. Movement

  3. Responsiveness

  4. Metabolism

  5. Digestion

  6. Excretion

  7. Reproduction

  8. Growth

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Maintaining Boundaries

The separation between internal and external environments. Plasma membrane separates cells. Skin separates the organism from the environment

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