AP Psych Units I-7

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Empiricism

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Psychology

388 Terms

1

Empiricism

  • The view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation

  • Locke

  • Tabula Rasa "Blank slate"

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2

Structuralism

  • Early school of thought which used introspection to reveal the structure of the human mind

  • Wundt and Titchener

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3

Functionalism

  • Early school of thought which explored how mental and behavioral processes function

  • How they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish

  • James and Darwin

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4

Experimental Psychology

  • The study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method

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5

Behaviorism

  • The view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes

  • Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2)

  • Watson and Rayner

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6

Humanistic Psychology

  • A historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential for healthy people

  • Freudian psychology

  • Maslow, Skinner, and Freud

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7

Cognitive Neuroscience

  • The interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition

  • Including perception, thinking, memory, and language

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8

Psychology

  • The science of behavior and mental processes

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9

Nature-Nurture Issue

  • The longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors

  • Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture

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10

Natural Selection

  • The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those contributing to reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations

  • Charles Darwin

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11

Levels of Analysis

  • The differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon

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12

Biopsychosocial Approach

  • An integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis

  • All lead to behavior or mental processes

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13

Behavioral Psychology

  • The scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning

  • Attempts to determine aggressive acts

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14

Biological Psychology

  • The scientific study of the links between biological and psychological processes

  • Neuropsychologists or Behavior Geneticists

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15

Cognitive Psychology

  • The scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

  • How our interpretation of a situation affects our anger and how our anger affects our thinking

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16

Evolutionary Psychology

  • The study of evolution of behavior and mind, using principles of natural selection

  • Analyze how anger facilitated the survival of our ancestors' genes

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17

Psychodynamic Psychology

  • A branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders

  • Might vies an outburst as an outlet for unconscious hostility

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18

Social-Cultural Psychology

  • The study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking

  • How expression of anger vary across cultural contexts

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19

Psychometrics

  • The scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits

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20

Basic Research

  • Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base

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21

Developmental Psychology

  • A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span

  • Womb to tomb

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22

Educational Psychology

  • The study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning

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23

Personality Psychology

  • The study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting

  • Investigating our persistent traits

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24

Social Psychology

  • The scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another

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25

Applied Research

  • Scientific study that aims to solve practical problems

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26

Industrial-Organizational (I/O) Psychology

  • The application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplace

  • Helps organizations and companies select and train employees

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Human Factors Psychology

  • An I/O psychology subfield that explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use

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Counseling Psychology

  • A branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living and in achieving greater well-being

  • Often related to school, work, or marriage

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Clinical Psychology

  • A branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders

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30

Psychiatry

  • A branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders

  • Practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical treatments as well as psychological therapy

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31

Positive Psychology

  • The scientific study of human functioning, with the goals of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive

  • "Meaningful life"

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32

Community Psychology

  • A branch of psychology that studies how people interact with their social environments and how social institutions affect individuals and groups

  • For example, stopping bullying

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33

Testing Effect

  • Enhanced memory after retrieving, rather than simply rereading, information

  • Also sometimes referred to as a retrieval practice effort or test-enhanced learning

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34

SQ3R

  • A study method incorporating 5 steps

  • Survey-Question-Read-Retrieve-Review

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35

Hindsight Bias

  • The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it

  • Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon

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Critical Thinking

  • Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions

  • Rather, it examines assumptions,assesses the source, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions

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Theory

  • An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events

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Hypothesis

  • A testable prediction often implied by a theory

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39

Operational Definition

  • A carefully worded statement of the exact procedures, operations, used in a research study

  • For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures

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40

Replication

  • Repeating the essence of a research study, usually with different participants in different situations, to see whether basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances

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41

Case Study

  • A descriptive technique in which one individual or group is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles

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42

Naturalistic Observation

  • Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation

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43

Survey

  • A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group

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44

Sampling Bias

  • A flawed sampling process that produces an unrepresentative sample

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Population

  • All those in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn

  • Except for national studies, this does not refer to a country's whole population

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Random Sample

  • A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion

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47

Correlation

  • A measure of the extent to which two variables change together, and thus of how well either variable predicts the other

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Correlation Coefficient

  • A statistical index of the relationship between two variables

  • From -1.0 to +1.0

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49

Scatterplot

  • A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the the values of two variables

  • The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables

  • The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation

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50

Illusory Correlation

  • The perception of a relationship where none exists

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51

Experiment

  • A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process

  • By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant variables

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52

Experimental Group

  • In an experiment, the group exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable

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53

Control Group

  • In an experiment, the group not exposed to the treatment, contrasts with the experimental group and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment

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Random Assignment

  • Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between the different groups

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Double-Blind Procedure

  • An experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo

  • Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies

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56

Placebo Effect

  • Experimental results caused by expectations alone

  • Any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent

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Independent Variable

  • The experimental factor that is manipulated

  • The variable whose effect is being studied

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Confounding Variable

  • A factor other than the independent variable that might produce and effect in an experiment

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Dependent Variable

  • The outcome factor

  • The variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable

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60

Validity

  • The extent to which a test or experiment measures or predicts what it is supposed to

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61

Descriptive Statistics

  • Numerical data used to measure and describe characteristics of groups

  • Includes measures of central tendency and measure of variation

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62

History

  • A bar graph depicting a frequency distribution

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63

Mode

  • The most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution

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64

Mean

  • The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then dividing by the number of scores

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65

Median

  • The middle score in a distribution

  • Half the score are above it and half are below it

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66

Skewed Distribution

  • A representation of scores that lack symmetry around their average value

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67

Range

  • The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution

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68

Standard Deviation

  • A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score

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69

Normal Curve

  • A symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many types of data

  • Most scores fall near the mean and fewer and fewer near the extremes

  • About 68 percent fall within one standard deviation of it

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70

Inferential Statistics

  • Numerical data that allow one to generalize- to infer from sample data the probability of something being true of a population

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71

Culture

  • The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next

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72

Informed Consent

  • An ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they wish to participate

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73

Debriefing

  • The postexperimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions, to its participants

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74

Biological Psychology

  • Links between biological and psychological processes

  • Behavioral neuroscience

  • Introduction to connection of nerve cells and behavior

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75

Neuron

  • Nerve cell which is the building block of the nervous system

<ul><li><p>Nerve cell which is the building block of the nervous system</p></li></ul>
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Dendrites

  • Branching extensions that receive messages

  • They listen

<ul><li><p>Branching extensions that receive messages</p></li><li><p>They listen</p></li></ul>
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Axon

  • Passes messages through branches to other neurons

  • They speak

<ul><li><p>Passes messages through branches to other neurons</p></li><li><p>They speak</p></li></ul>
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Myelin Sheath

  • Fatty tissue layer that encases the axons of some neurons

<ul><li><p>Fatty tissue layer that encases the axons of some neurons</p></li></ul>
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Action Potential

  • Neural impulse which is a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon

<ul><li><p>Neural impulse which is a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon</p></li></ul>
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Refractory Period

  • A period of inactive neuron firing

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81

Threshold

  • A level of stimulation that triggers a neural impulse

  • Excitatory: Neuron accelerating

  • Inhibitory: Neuron braking/slowing down

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All-or-None Response

  • You either get the neuron to fire or not fire with specific actions/behaviors

<ul><li><p>You either get the neuron to fire or not fire with specific actions/behaviors</p></li></ul>
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Synapse

  • The junction between the axon tip and cell body of the receiving neuron

<ul><li><p>The junction between the axon tip and cell body of the receiving neuron</p></li></ul>
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84

Neurotransmitters

  • Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons to trigger certain actions/behaviors

<ul><li><p>Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons to trigger certain actions/behaviors</p></li></ul>
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Reuptake

  • Neurotransmitters reabsorption by the sending neuron

<ul><li><p>Neurotransmitters reabsorption by the sending neuron</p></li></ul>
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86

Endorphins

  • Natural opiate (pain-killers) to stimulate pleasure

<ul><li><p>Natural opiate (pain-killers) to stimulate pleasure</p></li></ul>
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Agonist

-Stimulates a response

<p>-Stimulates a response</p>
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Antagonist

  • Blocks/inhibits a response

<ul><li><p>Blocks/inhibits a response</p></li></ul>
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89

Nervous System

  • Electrochemical communications network

  • Controls your nerves and some certain behaviors

<ul><li><p>Electrochemical communications network</p></li><li><p>Controls your nerves and some certain behaviors</p></li></ul>
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90

Central Nervous System (CNS)

  • The brain and the spinal chord which sends back a reaction to a certain sensory nerve or behavior

<ul><li><p>The brain and the spinal chord which sends back a reaction to a certain sensory nerve or behavior</p></li></ul>
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Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

  • Sensory and motor neurons

  • Responsible for gathering information and transmits central nervous system decisions to other body parts

<ul><li><p>Sensory and motor neurons</p></li><li><p>Responsible for gathering information and transmits central nervous system decisions to other body parts</p></li></ul>
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92

Nerves

  • Bundled axons that form neural "cables"

  • Connects nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs

<ul><li><p>Bundled axons that form neural &quot;cables&quot;</p></li><li><p>Connects nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs</p></li></ul>
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Sensory Association Area

knowt flashcard image
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Motor

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Interneurons

  • Neurons within the brain and spinal chord that communicate internally

  • Responsible for reflexes

  • Intervene with motor and sensory neurons

<ul><li><p>Neurons within the brain and spinal chord that communicate internally</p></li><li><p>Responsible for reflexes</p></li><li><p>Intervene with motor and sensory neurons</p></li></ul>
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96

Somatic Nervous System

  • Voluntary control of the skeletal muscles

<ul><li><p>Voluntary control of the skeletal muscles</p></li></ul>
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97

Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

  • Glandular activity, heartbeat, and digestions

  • Fight or flight

<ul><li><p>Glandular activity, heartbeat, and digestions</p></li><li><p>Fight or flight</p></li></ul>
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Sympathetic Nervous System

  • Arouses the body/excites energy

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99

Parasympathetic Nervous System

  • Conserves energy/calms

<ul><li><p>Conserves energy/calms</p></li></ul>
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100

Reflex

  • Automatic response

  • Knee-jerk

  • Found in the brainstem

<ul><li><p>Automatic response</p></li><li><p>Knee-jerk</p></li><li><p>Found in the brainstem</p></li></ul>
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