4U BIO EXAM (MC+short)

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In polysaccharides, monosaccharides are joined together by…

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Biology

12th

109 Terms

1

In polysaccharides, monosaccharides are joined together by…

Glycosidic bonds.

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2

Starch consists of…

Unbranched amylose and branched amylopectin.

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3

Cellulose is made up of repeating units of…

Beta-1,4 linkage between glucose units.

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4

Sucrose is a…

Disaccharide.

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5

The major functions of carbohydrates include…

Structural components of cell structures, and energy storage within a cell.

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6

Monosaccharides are…

Ketoses and aldoses.

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7

A triglyceride is formed by the condensation reactions between…

Fatty acids and alcohol.

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8

Lipids are important components of…

Cell membranes.

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9

The main difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids is…

The presence of double bonds.

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10

What is the solubility of lipids in water?

Insoluble.

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11

The repeating units of proteins are…

Amino acids.

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12

Amino acids are joined by…

Peptide bonds.

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13

The primary structure of a protein represents…

A linear sequence of amino acids joined by peptide bonds.

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14

Name the reaction between 2 amino acids.

Dehydration synthesis.

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15

Each amino acid is different from the other due to…

The R group.

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16

Enzymes are…

Proteins.

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17

What gives a protein its unique shape?

The unique amino acid sequence, hydrogen bonding and interactions between R groups, unique folding.

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18

R groups can be…

Hydrophobic, hydrophilic and charged.

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19

Quaternary Structure.

Polypeptide chains can assemble into multi-subunit structures.

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20

Primary structure.

Amino acids are linked by peptide bonds to form polypeptide chains.

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21

How many amino acids are there?

20.

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22

What determines the specificity of a protein?

The sequence of amino acids.

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23

What maintains the secondary structure of a protein?

Hydrogen bonds between amino of one peptide bond and the carboxyl.

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24

What role do the R groups have in protein?

The folding of the protein in its tertiary structure.

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25

All amino acid side chains vary in all BUT…

Peptide bonding.

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26

Carbohydrates have these functional groups…

Carbonyl and hydroxyl.

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27

Which functional groups are polar?

Hydroxyl, carboxyl, amino, carbonyl, phosphate.

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28

A dehydration reaction is…

A condensation reaction where the water molecule is removed.

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29

What 2 functional groups undergo a dehydration reaction to form an ester?

Carboxylic acid and alcohol.

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30

In a redox reaction, reduction relates to…

The gain of electrons.

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31

What is an ionic bond?

Atoms either taking or giving electrons (no sharing).

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32

What type of bond does hydrogen and oxygen form?

Polar covalent.

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33

Lipids have what type of bonds?

Ester.

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34

What are the monomers of lipids?

Glycerol and fatty acids.

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35

What is the structural difference between saturated and unsaturated lipids?

Unsaturated lipids have a double bond.

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36

Which type of lipid is amphipathic?

Phospholipids.

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37

What functional group makes fatty acids acidic?

Amino acid group.

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38

Lipids that are characterized by a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings is a…

Steroid.

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39

Single ringed, at least 2 hydroxyl groups and an aldehyde or ketone is…

Glucose.

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40

Two simple sugars linked together make a…

Disaccharide.

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41

What are the products of glycolysis?

2 NADH, 2 ATP, 2 Pyruvates.

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42

Steps 1 and 3 of glycolysis are…

Endergonic.

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43

What is required in the 1st three steps of glycolysis?

ATP for glucose activation.

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44

The ATP produced in glycolysis are generated by…

Substrate level phosphorylation.

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45

What is the purpose of the NADH produced in glycolysis?

To carry e- to ETC.

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46

Which molecules in glycolysis donate a phosphate to produce ATP?

PEP and 1,3BPG.

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47

What has to happen to F1,6BP to generate 2 G3P?

Is splits in half.

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48

What is added to G3P after it is oxidized by NAD+?

A phosphate group.

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49

What has to happen to 3PG in order to make pyruvate and an ATP?

Phosphate is removed and it is rearranged.

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50

Where do reaction of glycolysis occur?

Cytoplasm.

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51

How much ATP is USED in glycolysis?

2.

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52

What occurs after the formation of F1,6BP?

It splits into two 3GP molecules.

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53

How is 1,3BPG formed from G3P?

It is oxidized.

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54

How is pyruvate created from molecules of 1,3BPG?

Molecule is rearranged and loses a phosphate (makes NADH).

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55

What occurs during pyruvate oxidation?

Carbon is loss as CO2, loses H+ by oxidation and makes NADH. Produces Acetyl CoA.

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56

Where do reactions of krebs occur?

In the matrix of mitochondria.

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57

What molecule does acetyl CoA join with at the start or krebs?

Oxaloacetate.

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58

What is produced as a-ketoglutarate is changed into succinyl-CoA?

1 CO2, 1 NADH.

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59

As succinyl coA changes to succinate what is produced?

1 ATP, 1 CoA.

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60

What is generated in the final step of krebs?

OAA and NADH.

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61

What is produced in krebs for one glucose molecule?

6 NADH, 2 FADH, 2 ATP.

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62

Where is electron transport chain located?

The cristae folds, matrix and innermembrane space.

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63

What are basic components of ETC?

3 proton pumps, 2 e- carriers.

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64

What is the final electron acceptor?

Oxygen.

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65

What is produced at the end of ETC?

Water.

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66

What enzyme uses chemiosmosis to produce ATP?

ATP synthase.

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67

How many ATP does NADH produce?

3 ATP.

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68

What is the total number of ATP produced for one glucose molecule?

36-38 ATP.

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69

What does a granum contain?

Several thylakoids.

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70

Stomata allows for…

Carbon dioxide to diffuse in.

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71

What role may chlorophyll b & carotenoid play in photosynthesis?

They broaden the range that can be used in light reactions.

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72

Most plants appear green because chlorophyll…

Does not absorb green light.

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73

Chlorophyll has a porphyrin ring with ____ at the centre.

Magnesium.

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74

What part of a chlorophyll molecule absorbs light?

Porphyrin ring.

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75

What dos PS2 create?

ATP.

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76

The b6-f complex pumps protons into the…

Thylakoid lumen.

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77

Ferredoxing is a constituent of…

PS1.

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78

The Calvin cycle takes place in the…

Stroma.

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79

What does RuBIsCO do?

Carbon fixation.

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80

Photorespiration involves…

O2 and RuBP.

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81

Only CAM plants can….

Capture CO2 at night.

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82

Productivity of photosynthesis is the rate of….

Oxygen production.

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83

How many fructose molecules are required to make 3 carbon intermediates of glycolysis?

1.

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84

Oxaloacetate is converted to…

Citrate.

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85

What reducing agent is produced by succinate dehydrogenase?

FADH2.

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86

The movement of H+ through ATP synthase occurs from the…

Innermembrane space to the matrix.

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87

Fermentation is…

Anaerobic.

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88

Which process occurs in both aerobic and anaerobic respiration?

Glycolysis.

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89

Guanine and Cytosine bind together with…

3 hydrogen bonds.

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90

DNA replication takes place when?

During S phase.

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91

DNA replication is semi conservative, that means…

All daughter strands include an original strand.

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92

What is the first action in DNA replication?

DNA unwinds.

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93

The replication fork is the location of the enzyme that…

Splits the strands into 2 parts.

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94

DNA polymerase III help replication by…

Combining nucleotides to the exposed strand.

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95

The lagging strand is called this because…

Nucleotides are added away from the rep. Fork.

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96

A replication bubble consists of…

An area of replication on DNA.

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97

What is the direction of elongation?

5’-3’

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98

The genetic code interprets nucleotides in groups of…

Three.

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99

What is the start codon?

AUG.

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100

What is the role of mRNA?

The template of translation.

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