Unit 1

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Continent

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126 Terms

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Continent

a very large landmass that is separated by water or natural features like water

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Asia

-Biggest continent

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-2/3 of worlds population

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-48 countries (Includes India, China)

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-tallest mountains (Himalayas)

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-dead sea (lowest point on land)

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Africa

-2nd biggest continent

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-54 countries (includes Egypt, Nigeria, South Africa...)

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longest river (Nile)

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-non polar desert the Sahara ( worlds biggest desert)

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-rich in minerals 95% of diamonds and 50% gold

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-great pyramids of Giza, Egypt

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North America

-3rd biggest continent

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-USA and Canada

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-most dominant languages spanish,french, english

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-bordered by atlantic, artic, and pacific

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-has all climate types

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South America

-4th biggest continent

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-12 countries ( Brazil and Argentina)

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-The Amazon (biggest rainforest)

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Antarctica

-3rd smallest continent

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-surrounded by souther ocean

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-coldest, windiest, and driest

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Europe

-2nd smallest continent

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-44 countries (France,UK,Germany)

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-no deserts

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oceania

-smallest continent

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-new zealand and australia

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Name continents from smallest to largest

Oceania, Europe, Antartica, South America, North America, Africa, Asia

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Ocean

a very large area of salt water

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Pacific Ocean

-bigges ocean

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-surround by volcanos (ring of fire)

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-great barrier of reef (largest reef)

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-shrinks every year

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Atlantic Ocean

-2nd biggest ocean

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-youngest ocean

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-reaches from north an south america to europe and africa

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-mid atlantic ocean (longest underwater mountain range)

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-bermuda triangle

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Indian Ocean

-3rd biggest ocean

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-warmest ocean

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-40% of worlds oil supply

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Southern Ocean

-second smallest ocean

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-coldest and wildest

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-Antartica circumpolar current

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Aritc Ocean

-smallest ocean

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-covered in ice

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-lowest salinity level

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The World Bank

assigns the world to four income groups:

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-low income

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-lower-middle income

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-upper-middle income

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-high income

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classifications can change for 2 reasons:

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-changes to atlast GNI per capita

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-changes to classification thresholds

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Sustaniability

the ability to meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

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Natural Capital

Natural resources and ecosystem services that keep humans and other species alive and support human economies.

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Natural resources

materials/energy sources in nature essential or useful to humans

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ecosystem services

free natural services provided by health ecosystems

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ex : clean air and water, fertile soil for crop production, pollination, and flood control.

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ecological footprint

amount of land and water needed to supply a individual or population with renewable sources

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hydrologic cycle

continuous movement of water on, above, and below the surface on earth

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precipitation

air currents move clouds around globe, cloud particles collide, grow, and fall out of sky (fall as snow or rain)

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infiltration

water soaks into soil from ground level and moves underground between soil and rocks

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transpiration

plants leaves eventually release water into the air

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ground water

some water keeps moving down into the soil to a level filled with water

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interception

prevents rainfall from immediately reaching the soil

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groundwater discharge

some infiltration stays close to land surface and can seep back into surface water bodies and the ocean

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condensation

water vapor in air is changed into liquid water

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evaporation

liquid to water vapor

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surface runoff

precipitation runoff over landscape

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through-flow

water flow downhill within the soil

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State the major components of the Earth's atmosphere

nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, argon, water vapor

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ozone layer

absorbs UV radiation emitted by the sun

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how does ozone depletion occur

  1. CFCS release an rise into ozone layer

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2.UV releases chlorine atom

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3.Chlorine converts ozone to oxygen

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4.Chlorine atoms remain in stratosphere, destroying ozone

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Describe the ozone layer and outline its role in absorbing ultraviolet radiation

Ozone is concentrated layers in stratosphere and ozone absorbs a portion UV radiation preventing from reaching earths surface

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Outline the natural greenhouse effect that maintains the Earth's ambient temperature

  • UV radiation passes through earth's atmosphere and is absorbed by earth's surface

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  • some energy is re-emitted back into the atmosphere as infrared radiation

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-greenhouse gases absorb some of this infrared radiation and prevent it from leaving the atmosphere

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Trophosphere

-bottom layer in which we live in

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-temperature decreases with increase in altitude

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-all important weather phenomeno occur

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Stratosphere

-temperature increases with height due to increased absorption of UV radiation by ozone layer

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-ozone layer

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-dry and less dense

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-planes fly here

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Mesosphere

-temperature decreases with height

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-coldest place on earth

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-most meteorites burn up here

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Thermosphere

-temperature increases due to absorption of very short wave, high energy solar radiation

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-temp changes with solar activity

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biomes

an area classified according to the species that live in that location

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Habitat

natural environment or area in which an organism lives in

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ecosystem

a functional unit in which plants, animals, microorganisms and physical environments interact with each other

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Community

populations of different species living in a particular place, and potentially interacting with each other

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population

A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in a particular place

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