Cog Psych: CH 1-3

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Cognition

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126 Terms

1

Cognition

Cognition includes various mental processes that we use to interpret the world and to engage with others

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Cognitive Psychology

The objective, scientific study of mental processes, including learning memory, reasoning, decision-making, attention, perception, and language

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3

Plato, Socrates, Descartes

Nature, The contents of the mind are inborn; knowledge is inborn

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4

Aristotle, Locke

Nurture, People have to learn about the world

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5

Structuralism

Wundt, Thitchener

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6

Introspection

To look within yourself; self-reflection, became the source of argumentation and contention

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7

What Powerful school ruled the 20th century, used introspection and forbade study of mind/thinking?

Behaviorism

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8

Behaviorists who equated human thinking to studying animal behavior

John Watson, B.F. Skinner

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9

Who caused the end of Behaviorism in psychology and believed language is inborn?

Noam Chomsky

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10

Physiological psychology/Neuroscience

Elementary medical techniques (EEG) and case studies of patients with brain damage led to a notion of “localization of function”

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11

Localization of function

Different places in the brain have different jobs

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12

Cognitive Neuroscience

The combination of physiological studies of localizations of function of operations in a living human

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13

Function

Skills or ability

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14

Medical technology (Neuro-imaging)

allows for the extensive study of cognitive functions in a living human

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15

Theoretical Cognition

Theory is related to understanding or explaining things

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16

Applied Cognition

Applied refers to using out knowledge in the real world

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17

What is the reason for research?

To understand why things are the way they are

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18

Variable

Anything that can have different values, that varies, is a variable

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19

Some variables that can be manipulated

Type of stimuli shown, Complexity of stimuli

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20

Variables that can be collected as data

Decision, Reaction time, Recall, Patterns of activation on neuro-imaging, looking time

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21

Descriptive Research

Documents or records things as they are (no stimulating/manipulating)

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22

Advantage of descriptive research

Report things as they exist: authentic, natural, trustworthy

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23

Disadvantage of descriptive research

Never answers the cause or reason why something occurs

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24

Naturalistic Observation

Observing behavior in the environment in which they occur, Jane Goodall’s Chimps

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25

Case Studies

Writing down a detailed story about an individual because it is a unique case

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26

Correlational Studies

Broad collection of studies (Ex Post Facto/Quasi-experimental), correlation coefficcient -1 to +1

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27

Ex Post Facto

Collect research after the fact

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28

Quasi-experimental Studies

Not experimental but looks like it

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29

Caveat about correlation

Correlation is causation - INCORRECT STATEMENT

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30

Ethical Constraints of Correlational Research

Not going to force person to do action, but find the data to figure out if there is a correlation, while aware of the limits

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31

Practical Constraints of Correlational Research

Can not force a person into said situation, but can find the relation through data

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32

Experimental Research

Variables are deliberately manipulated to see what happens

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33

Independent variable (IV)

Thing that is changed

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34

Dependent variable (DV)

Data that get collected, results of the study

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35

Advantages of experimental research

If done correctly can find out what causes what

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36

Disadvantage to experimental research

Inauthentic, odd, strange, subject will behave different than. how they naturally would

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37

Extraneous Variables

not IV or DV, can confuse the interpretation of a study and influence the DV, needs to be controlled, e.g. age, gender, environment, species

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38

Participant Bias (expectancy effects)

Participants have beliefs that can affect their reactions or performance

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39

Single-blind control

Only the participants are unaware of some important information that might influence the results of the study, researchers may lie about study for this reason

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40

Experimenter bias

Researchers are committed to getting a certain pattern of data, which can inappropriately impact the results

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41

Double-blind control

The participants and the researchers (who directly deal with the participants) are unaware of important information

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42

Parts of the limbic system

Hippocampus and amygdala

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43

What is the most recent part of our brain to evolve?

Neocortex

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44

Sulci and fissures (wrinkles and deep grooves) in the brain

allows for more tissue for function

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45

Neocortex

Involved in memory, awareness, attention, language, reasoning, intelligence, perception, and movement

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46

Cortical

adjective for cortex

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47

Somatosensory and motor cortex

In humans, much of the area is devoted to the head, face, mouth, and hands. Less is devoted to larger body parts. the ratio is varied in humans

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48

Somatosensory

Gives you feeling if you are being touched and where

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49

Motor skill

Gives you the ability to move your body

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50

Localization of function

Functions are abilities (movement, language, vision, memory, etc) found in predictable and permanent areas of the brain

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51

Are there anatomical modules or centers?

No coginitive functions can be found in multiple areas of the brain, flexibly depending on the task. Areas overlap

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52

Association areas

flexibly allow the cortex to interpret, coordinate, and link info and functions from multiple areas, activity can change from moment to moment

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53

Tissue in association areas, Humans vs. Other species

Humans have a higher percentage devoted to association areas, others species lower on the phylogenetic scale have less

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54

What does neuroimaging research show of accomplished people in the arts and sciences?

They have increased activity in association cortices (plural of cortex), compared to people in non-creative areas

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55

Techniques to study human brain

Clinical/Medical case studies, Recording, Neuroimaging

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56

CT Scans

Shows the structure of the brain

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57

What are the white areas in CT Scans?

brain tissue; functional tissue

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58

What are the black areas in CT Scans?

Missing brain tissue; fluid

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59

PET scans

shows activity in the brain

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60

What are the red/orange areas in PET scans?

Intense activity

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61

What are the blue areas in PET scans?

no activity/less activity

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62

MRI

shows the structure of the brain

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63

fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging)

structure and activity, anatomical detail and specific are where activity takes place

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64

Lateralization of function

Lateral means side, so the sides of the brain and their respective functions

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65

Left hemisphere

Analytic thought; logic, math, language(Broca, Wernicke), Right (opposite) side motor skills, Right (opposite) side ear audition

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66

Right hemisphere

Emotional thought, Intuitions, Creativity, music, art, Left (opposite) side motor skills, Left (opposite) side ear audition

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67

What is the purpose of the corpus Callosum?

This is the tissue that allows both sides to communicate; information is shared across hemispheres

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68

Lateralization of function map

Only true for right-handed, almost all right handed people are left dominant for language, left handed people are not predictable, they are not on the opposite side to righties

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69

What is true about being left handed?

Left handedness is associated with a high risk of a learning disability

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70

Dominance

Refers to the hemisphere that is stronger for a function. The left hemisphere is “dominant for language” and the right side is dominant for music and art but has some linguistic skills

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71

What is a misconception of dominance?

People are not left brained or right brained, they use both

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72

How many lobes are in the hemispheres?

Each hemisphere has four distinct lobes

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73

What is and where is excutive function?

Located in the frontal lobes, it is involved in planning, organizing, decision-making, regulates impulses, emotion, consideration of consequences

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74

What disorders have executive dysfunctions?

ADHD, ASD, traumatic brain injury, dementia (trouble with the lobe)

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75

What is the main cause of chronic traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE)

Prevalent in football who constantly hitting their head for a long period of time

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76

Where is language?

Broca’s area, Wernicke’s area, Language Association area

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77

Why can people hear better through there right ear?

The right ear is directly connected to the left hemisphere where the language function is found

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78

Where is memory located?

Several places in the cortex, lower down or “older” parts of the brain

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79

What are the two parts of the limbic system?

Hippocampus and amygdala

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80

What does the limbic system do?

Humans use the limbic system for learning and memory

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81

What is bigger in people who rely on memory?

Hippocampus

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82

What happens in the hippocampus?

Short term memory transform into long term memory

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83

What mental disability effects the performance of the hippocampus?

PTSD, post traumatic stress disorder, can affect the memory span

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84

What is the function of the amygdala

vigilance, respond (to others or situations) with empathy or aggression, used for some classical conditioning

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85

What Happens in a synapse

Neurons get excited which can stimulate more neurons. Neurotransmitters get released into the synapse and allow neurons to communicate and act in a coordinated way

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86

What is pruning?

It is a process that eliminates overgrowth of synapse connections that are no longer needed

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87

When does pruning occur?

While you sleep which is why sleep is very important

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88

What cells are in charge of pruning?

Microglial cells, janitors of the brain, serve the purpose of pruning

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89

At what stages does pruning most commonly occur?

3, 8, and puberty

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90

How much pruning happens with schizophrenia?

Too much pruning

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91

How much pruning happens with autism?

Not enough pruning

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92

How much pruning happens with Alzheimer’s?

Too much pruning LATER in life

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93

Neuroplasticity

The brain changes with experience

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94

What is the correlation between age and neuroplasticity

Negative correlation, as age increases, neuroplasticity decreases

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95

Epigenetics

Genes can be expressed (appear) or not expressed, without modifying genetic information (genotype). They can be “switched” on or off. Biology is not destiny.

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96

Cognitive reserve

The brain can protect itself from preexisting pathology when a person stays active mentally and physically

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97

What was the outcome of the nun study?

Some nuns who functioned typically/normally had brains full of pathology, actively learning and staying engaged in activities protected their mind from said pathology

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98

Neuroplasticity, Epigenetics, Cognitive Reserve

Your behaviors and experiences impact your brain function, protect you brain

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99

Perception (sensation)

Perception emphasizes how sensory input interacts with psychological issues such as expectancy, culture, learning, etc

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100

Where are receptor cells?

Receptor cells are outside of the brain, they are the first to dtect stimuli for each of the senses

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