Digestive System

studied byStudied by 2 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

Purpose of the digestive system

1 / 103

Tags and Description

104 Terms

1

Purpose of the digestive system

to provide a continous supply of H2o,electolytes and nutrients

New cards
2

Feces

non-absorbed food material “undigestible material”

New cards
3

walls of the digestive system

walls

New cards
4

Longitudinal muscle layer

runs length wise in the organ

New cards
5

Circular muscle

runs around the organ

New cards
6

Sub Mucosa layer

layer of connective tissue under the mucosa

New cards
7

Mucosa layer

layer of mucous membrane that secretes

New cards
8

Divisions of the stomach

divisions

New cards
9

Fundus

enlarged portion above asophagus

New cards
10

Body

central portion of the stomach

New cards
11

Pylorus

lower part of stomach

New cards
12

Organs of the gastrointestinal tract

organs

New cards
13

mouth

oral cavity

New cards
14

Pharynx

tube through which a bolus go through

New cards
15

esophagus

tube that extends pharynx to the stomach

New cards
16

stomach

stors food for 2-3 hours

New cards
17

small intestine

mixes food further

New cards
18

large intestine

approximetly 6cm in diameter 1.5 meters long

New cards
19

Accessory organs

organs not needed to live

New cards
20

Salivary Glands

secrete saliva

New cards
21

Vermiform appendix

vestigal organ below cecum

New cards
22

liver

largest gland in the body stores blood

New cards
23

hepatocytes

liver cells

New cards
24

gallbladder

produces digestive enzymes runs behind stomach to spleen

New cards
25

pancreas

lies on undersurface of liver ejects bile

New cards
26

Structures of the oral cavity

-lips- manipulative folds that close the opening of the mouth

New cards
27

Cheeks

lateral boundries of the oral cavity; covered with mucous membrane

New cards
28

palettes

hard at the anterior and has bone behind it

-soft at the rear separates the mouth from the nasopharynx

-uvula- hangs down at the back of the soft palate

-a, the tongue-solid mass of skeletal muscle that keeps food between teeth- organs of mastication.

-composed of the crown- exposed portion covered by enamel

-neck-narrow portion that joints crown to root

-roots- fits into the socket of the alveolar process of the bone

-internally composed of dentin surrounding pulp cavity

New cards
29

Types of teeth

teeth

New cards
30

incisors

flattened teeth at anterior which cut material

New cards
31

canines

sharp,pointed teeth for ripping

New cards
32

premolars

reletively flattened teeth used for grinding

New cards
33

Molars

very large flat teeth for grinding

New cards
34

mastication

chewing

reduces size of food particles and increases surface area -mechanical digestion

mixes food with saliva for ease of swallowing.

New cards
35

Salivary glands

-produce digestive enzymes and mucus=saliva

New cards
36

Parotoid glands

largest, located outside bone in front of ear.

produce watery saliva containing enzymes and enzymes.

New cards
37

Subligual glands

located below; produce mucous type of saliva

New cards
38

Pharynx

tube through which a bolus of food passes when moved from the esophagus during deglutination

-deglutination=swallowing

oral stage

voluntarily controlled

formation of food bolus by tongue

-tongue pushes food against palate.

New cards
39

pharyngeal stage

oropharynx to esophagus

oral cavity closed by tongue, combination of contractions and gravity move bolus into esophagus

esophagus-esophagus to stomach

New cards
40

peristalsis

-inoluntary rythmic contractions that propell food in gi tract stimulated by distension

New cards
41

Segmentation

mixing movement that causes that causes back and forth movement within a single area of the gi tract; mixes food with enzymes and brings digested food into contact with mucosa to facilitate absorbtion

New cards
42

esophagus

-tube that extends from pharynx to the stomach

-reverse peristalsis happens when food enters botoom of esophagus

-cadiac sphincter controls movement of food into stomach

-heartburn occcurs when acid comes through

-gastroephageal reflux disease.GERD

New cards
43

Stomach

-stores large amounts of food for 2-3 hours

-mixes food with gastric secreations including gastric juice and hydrochloric acid PH 1-3

-oblique muscle layer helps in mixing movements

-food mixes with gastric juices=chyme

-absorbs alchol,some drugs,aspirin can breach the mucosal barrier and cause bleeding

-cekks are constantly shedding-newlining every 3 day

-pyloric sphincter controls exit to small intestine

New cards
44

stomach wall

gastric mucosa

rugae marked by gastric pits

gastric glands-secretes gastric juice

chief cells-located in gastric glands;secrete the enzyme of gastric juice

parietal cells-in gastric glands;secrete HCL

-endocrine cells secrete gastrin

New cards
45

Small intestine

periostalic waves move chyme; segmentation movements mix food further

-approxiematley 2.5 cm in diameter and 7m (22ft’9 inches in length

three divisions.

New cards
46

Duodenum

upper portions-adds secreations,digest

New cards
47

Jejunum

secretory and digestive functions

New cards
48

ileum

digestive and absorptive function

villi with microvilli increse -each contains an arteriole,venule,and lacteal for absorbing nutrients.

New cards
49

Large intestine -colon

approxiemately 6cm. diameter;1.5 m (5ft) long

New cards
50

cecum

blind sac located below leoceal where the ileum empties into colon

New cards
51

veriform appendix

vestigal organ below cecum

New cards
52

ascending colon

vertical section on rigtht side of abdomena

New cards
53

tranverse colon

crosses horizontally across the abdomen above the small intestine

New cards
54

descending colon

vertical section on left side of abdomen

New cards
55

sigmoid

connects descending colon to rectum

New cards
56

rectum

last 7-8 inches of intestinal tube- stores fecal material for defication

New cards
57

peritoneum

-sheet of serous membrane that helps to hold intestines in place

New cards
58

mesentary

membrane between folds of small intestines,allows free movementrr

New cards
59

tranverse mesocolon

extension of peritoneum that holds tranverse colon place

New cards
60

Accessory organs

liver,pancreas,gallbladder

New cards
61

liver

largest gland in the body(1.5 kg), just below diaphragm

blood within liver is within spaces called sinusoids

New cards
62

Bile ducts

bile ducts within the liver carry bile to the gallbladder

detoxifies many substances such as alcohol and barbiturates

secrete bile in form of bile salts

helps in metabolism of fats,carbohydrates, and proteins

stores iron some vitamins and glucose

form many blood components:erythrocytes in embryo,plasma proteins,prothrombin and other clotting factors

New cards
63

sinusoids

blood within liver is within spaces called sinusoids

New cards
64

hepatocytes

liver cells

New cards
65

Pancreas

runs from duodenum,behind stomach,to spleen

New cards
66

exocrine gland

portion produces digestive enzymes

which travel to duodenum through the pancreatic duct. Endocrine portion

secretes insulin and glucagon directly into the capillaries

New cards
67

Gallbladder

lies on undersurface of liver

stores and concentrates bile

ejects concentrated bile through bile duct to duodenum

New cards
68

Mechanical digestion

changes the physical state of food large solif pieces to small pieces

so that chemical digestion is more efficient

mastication and deglutination

peristalsis and segmentation

New cards
69

Chemical digestion

chemical breakdown of food by enzymes

enzymes are protein catalysts

are specific in what they digest

enzymes are protein catalyst

are specific in what they digest

enzymes work best at specific PH

New cards
70

Carbohydrate digestion

used primary by the body as energy sources

must be broken down into mono saccharides simple sugars to be used by cells

-glucose , fructose and galactose

polysaccharides to disaccharides to monosaccharides.

salivary amylase-in saliva begins carbohydrate digestion

pancreatic amylase added in the small intestine begins the digestion of carbohydrates that aren’t affected by saliva amylase

ex-sucrase,maltase, and lactose complete the digestion into monosaccharides

-these enzymes are located within the epithelial cells covering the villi and preform contact digestion

New cards
71

protein digestion

proteins must be digested into amino acids to be absorbed and utilized

proteases work on proteins and break them into intermidiate product such as peptides

digestion begins in the stomach with pepsin wich breaks large polypeptides into smaller polypeptides and single amino acids

trypsin and chymotrpsin produced by the pancrease continue protein digestion in the small intestine

-peptidase anzymes by seperating individual amino acids

complete protein digestion

New cards
72

Lipid digestion

since fats marew insoluble in wate they must be emulsified before they can be digested

lecithin and bile emulsify oilsa and fats in smallintestine-form tiny speres call micelles

all fat digestion takes place in thge small intestion

lipases formed by pancreas digest fats

final products of fat digestion=fatty acids,monoglycerides,nd glycerol

New cards
73

Metabolisim

sum of all chemical reaction in body

New cards
74

catabolisim

decomposition process

breaks food into small molecules

realses energy which is useful if first transferred to high energy bond og ATP

ATP highh energy bonds are easily broken and supply energy for cell reaction

New cards
75

Anabolisim

cibstructive reactions

synthesizaes larege molecules celluar products from smaller molecules

require energy which it gets from atp

New cards
76

Glycolsis

splits one glucose into pyruvic acids

occurs in cytoplasm

anerobic no o2

prepares sugar for krebs cycle

1g=2pa +atp +heat

New cards
77

Krebs cycle

convery 2 Pa in 6 co2

occurs in mitochondria

aeribuc

cycle stops without oxygen

New cards
78

glycogenesis

forms glycogen by ccombining sugar

occurs when glycosis mechanics are occupied

New cards
79

Glycogenolysis

split glycogen to form glucose

in response to low blood sugar

New cards
80

Gluconeogenesis

new sugar formed from proteins and fate

New cards
81

Eletion transport o

occurs in mito

o2 required

uses products of krebs cycle to produce lots of ATp

New cards
82

amino acids used to produce sugar

six atp are used in production

xdvd

New cards
83

prancreatic islets

secrete

New cards
84

insulin

decreses blood sugar by helping cells absorb it

New cards
85

glucagon

increases blood sugar ny increasing rate of glycogenolysis

during starvation cotisole promotes glyconeogenesis protein breakdown in muscle,supplies amino acids to the liver

New cards
86

ACTH

stimulates protein mobilization and gluconeogenesis.

New cards
87

Catabolsism

fatty acids broken in krebs cycle

2x as much rnrtgy as carbs

New cards
88

Anabolisim

syntheseis of lipids(triglycerides and cholesterol)

triglycerides are stored as fat

only sats fatty acids and be synthesized

essential fatty acids must enter with diet

New cards
89

Protein metabolisim

is primary- proteins are tissue building foods

proteins are synthesides by ribosomes

-every cell makes its own structural proteins and enzymes

-some build special proteins for export

-proteins are used for growth reproduction,tissue regainand replacement

New cards
90

Metabolic rate

amount of energy used by the body within a given time

rate of which an organisim uses food by cellulare respiation

exspressed as kcal/hour

New cards
91

Basal metabolic rate

amount of energy used with no action

affected by size,sex,age,thyroid,body temp

New cards
92

kcal per lb of fat

3,500 kcal in a pound

New cards
93

regulating food intake

hypothalmus-controls hungrt

appetite center neurons who bring hunger

satiety center-neurons whos pulses decrease appetite

increase blood tempincreased blood temp = not hungry

glucostatic theory -increased in blood sugar=hungry

New cards
94

Diarreah

increases motility of small intestine

New cards
95

constipation

contents of lower colon and rectum move slow

New cards
96

Mumps

viral disease charecterizes by swelling parotoid glands

New cards
97

Tooth decay

caries

decay occurs on tooth surfaces where food bres acid secreting bacteria and plaque communicatrion

New cards
98

gallstones

solid material and cholesterol

New cards
99

ulcers

wound in a membrane caused by tissue deconstruction

helicobacter pylori cause ulcers

New cards
100

hemmorhoids

caused by tension

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 14 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 96 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 28 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 51 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 17 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard45 terms
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard240 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard68 terms
studied byStudied by 471 people
Updated ... ago
4.9 Stars(7)
flashcards Flashcard74 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard44 terms
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 44 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard34 terms
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard20 terms
studied byStudied by 659 people
Updated ... ago
4.6 Stars(15)