Geog

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Geography

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5

There are _____ number of layers that make up the atmosphere

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2

Troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere

_____, _____, ______ are the three layers of the atmosphere closest to the earth

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3

thermosphere, exosphere

_____ and ______ are the two layers of the atmosphere furthest from the earth

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4

thins

Air density ______ the higher up in the atmosphere it travels

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5

equator

Solar radiation is especially strong at the ________

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6

more

The equator receives ________ radiation than at the poles

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7

more

The sun rays hit _________ directly at the equator than at the poles

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8

heat

The atmospheric global circulation cycle redistributes _______ away from the poles

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9

Hadley

The ______ cell is the air circulation closest to the equator

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10

less

Sunlight hits the equator with __________ surface area than at the poles, with the same amount of energy

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11

Aerosols

_______ are finely divided solid or liquid particles that are dispersed in the atmosphere

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12

natural

Volcanic dust is an example of a _______ aerosol

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13

anthropogenic

Agricultural dust & soot are examples of an _________ aerosol

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14

intercepting, scattering, direct

Aerosols have a direct effect on the atmosphere by _______ and ____ a small portion of radiation from the sun. This is an example of a ________ effect of aerosols

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15

indirect, more, smaller

Affecting cloud formation is an example of an ______ effect. Aerosols lead to clouds containing _____ and ______ water droplets.

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reduced, extreme events, heavy

________ rainfall and _______ ________ with ______ rainfall is a result of anthropogenic aerosol pollution

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17

Burning of biomass, creating industrial emissions

_______ and ________ by humans can increase aerosols

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18

dust pall

Agricultural dust can lead to the creation of a ____ _____

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19

global dimming

From the years of 1960-1990, the earth went through an event called ______ ______ where solar radiation reaching the surface declined due to increased aerosols reflecting sunlight

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20

global brightening

_____ _____ is the event since the 1990s of solar radiation reducing due to a decrease in aerosols

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21

Precipitation, temperature

When thinking about earth's atmosphere, _______ & _____ are the two variables that are observed

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22

aerosols, greenhouse gases, albedo, & evapotranspiration

_____, _____, ______, & _______ all impact the earth's temperature and precipitation

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23

Short-wave

- radiation is the radiation coming from the sun

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24

Long-wave

- radiation is the radiation emitted from the earth

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25

greenhouse effect

The _____ ____ is the phenomenon which traps heat in the earth's atmosphere

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26

large, higher

____ amounts of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide lead to _____ amounts in heat in the atmosphere

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27

predict

Models are used to _____ factors and trends such as amounts of CO2 and air temperature

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28

higher

Models predict that the _____ latitudes will be more affected by climate change

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29

oxygen

Ozone is comprised of 3 ______ molecules

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30

stratosphere

The ozone layer is in the ________

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31

UV radiation

The ozone layer shields the earth from incoming ________ _________

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32

smog, ground

Bad ozone also known as _________ forms at the _________ level

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33

1980s

Starting around the __________ scientists began noticing a significant thinning of the ozone

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34

southern pole

Ozone depletion is most noticeable in the _________ _________ region

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35

ozone hole

Ozone depletion in this area is also referred to as the _________ _______ also not necessarily a hole

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36

chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

The most famous ozone depleting substance is _____________ (______)

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37

solar radiation

Once diffused into the atmosphere, CFC's are broken down by _____ _____

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38

chlorine, oxygen

The ________ from the broken-down CFC's bonds with _________ to destroy ozone

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39

Montreal Protocol

In 1987, counties adopted the _________ ________ that pledged to phase out CFC's

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40

rural, urban

People have been relocating from _______ to ___________ regions

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41

poorer

______ counties rely heavily on coal, oil, and wood

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42

suspended particulate matter (SPM)

The use of the coal, etc. leads to increased amounts in _________ (_____) which can get into your lungs

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43

toxic base metals, carcinogens, urban

Arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury are all examples of _______ ______ _____ because of their role as _______. These pollutants have been found to be in mostly ________ areas.

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44

photochemical smog, sunlight

_________ _________ is a mixture of smoke and fog and is produced when nitrous oxides react with ______

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45

China

_______ is the country who (in 2005) produced the highest amounts of sulfur dioxide emissions

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46

Clean Power Plan, marginalized, lives, money

The ______ _____ ________ is a program started under Obama's Climate Action Plan in 2014 to reduced emissions from industry. _________ communities are more likely to be impacted from climate change issues. This program saves _______ and _______ by reducing medical costs and death.

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47

renewable energy

The federal approach of bringing in _______ _______ to low-income communities is supposed to help by creating jobs in local areas, reducing overall and local pollution, and reduce cost of power.

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48

Arctic ocean

The ocean surrounding the region surround land around the North Pole is the _________ ______

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49

Arctic circle, 66 degrees, 34 mins

Scientists define the Arctic as the region above the _______ _______. This line occurs at ~ about ______ and _______ North.

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50

one

The sun sets and rises _______ time per year.

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51

Arctic treeline

Another definition for the Arctic is the area above the _______ _______.

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52

10C or 50F

If using temperature to define the Arctic, then the Arctic would be considered in high latitudes where the average summer temperature does not reach above ________.

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53

4, half

About ____ million people live in the Arctic. _______ a million are indigenous to the area.

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54

cryos

The word "cryosphere" comes from the Greek word ________.

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55

frozen water

The region of the cryosphere is the considered the _______ ________ part of the Earth's system.

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56

land, ground, sea

The three main components of the cryosphere consist of _______ ice, ______ ice, and _____ ice.

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57

high

The snow and ice have a _______ albedo which reflects sunlight. This process helps to regulate the Earth's temperature.

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58

not

The cryosphere is ________ limited to the North Pole.

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59

land

The largest part of the cryosphere includes ________ ice.

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60

glacier

A __________ is a large mass of that is resting on land or floating on sea adjacent to land.

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61

ice fields, ice sheets

As opposed to glaciers, ______ _______ and _____ _______are not constrained by topography.

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62

2

There are currently ____ ice sheets on earth.

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63

attatched

Ice shelves are floating sheets of ice permanently _________ to a land mass.

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64

icebergs

______ are sections of broken ice away from land ice or ice shelves.

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65

loss

Most places in the world are witnessing net ________ in ice.

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66

glacier

In the news clip shown, Iceland hiked to hold a memorial for the death of a _________.

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67

ground, ground, 0C

Permafrost is considered _______ ice and is _______ that has been at a temperature of _____ or below for two years or more.

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permanently frozen

"Permafrost" means ______ __________.

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69

ground

Permafrost is not about frozen ice, but about how much frozen _______.

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70

land bridge

During the last Ice Age, there was a _____ ______ between Alaska and Russia.

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71

sub-sea

- permafrost is permafrost under the ocean.

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72

ocean, rivers, lakes

Ice in water includes ice that is found in the _______ and frozen ______ and _______.

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73

lower

Salt water freezes at a _______ temperature than fresh water.

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74

excluded, brine rejection, dense

When salt water freezes, salt is ________ from the ice crystals in a process called _______ ______. As a result of this process, the surrounding sea water becomes saltier and more ______.

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75

conveyor belt circulation

The sea ice contributes to the ocean's global _______ _______ _______.

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76

homeland security, resource extraction, arctic ocean

_________ ________, _________ _____ and access to the ________ _____ are all reasons why us "lower 48-staters" should care about the Arctic.

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77

DEW, distant early warning

The ______ Line or _____ ______ _____ Line, was the line of protection created in the Arctic in case the Soviet Union attacked the United States during the Cold War.

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78

Greenland

In the summer of 2019, President Trump made an offer to buy ________, and offer that had been made by U.S. presidents before him.

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79

food security

_____ _____ is the concept about measuring the availability of food and one's access to it

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80

food insecurity

In places where availability or access is limited, we talk about ______ __________

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81

part

Most Inuits see themselves as a ________ of their ecosystem

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82

nomadic

Most Inuits lead ______ lives, moving from camp to camp through the seasons hunting herds of animals

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83

thinning, less

_______ sea ice means _______ access for arctic communities because it's either not there or isn't thick enough for travel

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84

traditional

________ knowledge might not be as adapted to sea ice changes

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85

water

As permafrost thaws, Arctic communities lose _____ to land through land subsidence

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86

new lakes, large depressions

Permafrost thawing can lead to ______ ______ or ______ _______ across large swaths of land.

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87

animals, migratory

With the mosaic of the land possibly changing every year, _________ are affected when looking for food. And wildlife is affected by being forced to change _________ paths.

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88

cultural

"Our" food may not be a part of "their" diet, and the _________ shift in transitioning diets and gathering food could be huge by having a need for money and losing part of their identity.

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89

import

The price of staple fuels relies heavily on _______ price for transportation, making access to healthier foods difficult.

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90

coast

Most Inuit communities live along the ________.

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91

displacement

Some Native Alaskan communities are faced with the serious threat of _______ or forced migration

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92

land subsidence

Permafrost thaw can lead to ____ ____ which causes infrastructure damage and displacement.

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93

coastal erosion

________ _________ leads to property loss.

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94

ice/albedo climate

The /__ ______ feedback loop is one Earth's most effective air-conditioning systems

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95

cool

Reflected radiation via ice keeps the climate ______

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96

oceans

With a decrease in ice coverage, solar radiation is absorbed by the _________ which has a low albedo

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97

heat

Water can retain a lot of ________

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98

glaciers

If temperatures were to increase, sea ice would have the ability to still bounce back and regrow as opposed to _______ which do have a temperature tipping point.

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99

slower, carbon

Due to a colder environment, rate of plant decomposition is ________ than at temperate latitudes and as a result a layer of detritus that is frozen into the permafrost. This permafrost is thought to contain more than twice the amount of ______ than is stored in the Amazon forest.

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100

methane, heat

As the permafrost thaws, anaerobic microbes which can live in the flooded areas are able to decompose plant material and produce the greenhouse gas ________ which traps ______ in the atmosphere

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