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What is the Popol-Vuh?

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1

What is the Popol-Vuh?

Mayan bible

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2

What did the rulers of the Aztec Empire call themselves?

Mexicas

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3

Name one strategy that the Incas used to establish dominance over other indigenous peoples.

The imposition of their language

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4

Why was the Spanish Inquisition established?

To ensure Catholic orthodoxy

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5

The conqueror of Mexico was

Hernán Cortés

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6

Who was the leader of the Inca Empire when the Spaniards arrived?

Atahualpa

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7

Why are there so many words that begin with al- in Spanish (like albahaca, alcaucil, alfombra, almendras, algebra, etc.)?

Because of the influence of the Arabic language

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8

What was the encomienda?

A system that justified the exploitation of Amerindians

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9

What was the mita?

A system that exploited Amerindians in mines

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10

Who was Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz?

A Mexican nun who was also a scholar

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11

Hegemony

dominance with the consent of the dominated

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12

Transculturation

Cultures A and B both influence each other

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13

What structure was not found in the central square of a typical colonial city?

fountain

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14

What is a mestizo?

Someone with European and indigenous blood

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15

What country used to include in its territory what is now Panama?

Colombia

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16

Which two countries are the only landlocked countries in the Americas?

Paraguay and Bolivia

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17

Who was Hatuey?

A Taíno chief

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18

Why was there a Water War in Cochabamba?

a neoliberal policy

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19

Who was Bartolomé de Las Casas?

A former owner of an encomienda

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20

Why did Hatuey not want his soul to go to Heaven?

Because he did not want to share eternity with any Christian

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21

What was the name of the first person to publicly denounce the Spanish abuse towards Amerindians?

Antonio de Montesinos

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22

Which one of the following is not a result of the arrival of capitalism in the New World?

The salvation of the indigenous from their own incompetence

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23

What language is spoken in Paraguay?

Guaraní

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24

Christopher Columbus's expedition was the first to arrive in what ended up being Spanish America. Whose expedition was the first to arrive in what ended up being Portuguese America?

Pedro Alvares Cabral

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25

Why didn't the Portuguese aggressively colonize Brazil right away?

Because they had limited resources

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26

What product led to the first captaincies in Brazil?

Pau-Brasil

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27

What two empires were also interested in Brazil?

The Dutch and the French

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28

What is an aldeia?

a village

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29

What was a bandeirante?

Someone who hunted Amerindians

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30

Racial mixture quickly became prevalent in Brazil because

there were few European women

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31

When someone "passed" in terms of racial classification, their "inferior" race was compensated by their wealth and education. (T/F)

True

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32

What was a quilombo?

A community of runaway slaves

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33

How could slaves usually not achieve freedom?

By appealing to a court of law

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34

At a fazenda, slaves

worked in plantations

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35

Daniel (the actor in Even the Rain) and Hatuey were similar in that both of them were

ready to give their lives for their community

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36

It was of utmost importance for a slave owner to take good care of his slaves, as replacing them was unsustainably costly. (T/F)

False

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37

Why was there tension between the peninsular Spaniards and the Creoles?

The Creoles resented the Spaniards

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38

Which ideal ended up being not followed up to a point by the creole aristocracy?

Equality

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39

Which country achieved independence and abolition at the same time?

Haiti

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40

Who was not a liberator of a Latin American country?

Evo Morales

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41

What was a reason why La Gran Colombia became dissolved?

Disagreement on the political structure of the country

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42

What does the notion of La patria grande seek to inspire today?

The ideal of fraternity throughout Latin America

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43

What two institutions were central in the colonial life of Spanish and Portuguese America?

The Crown and the Church

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44

The first periodicals in the New World appeared in

the 17th century

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45

What was mandatory for the rural colonized people to learn from their colonizers in the 16th century?

No mandatory education

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46

In what century were the first universities in the New World founded?

16th century

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47

What event led to the reevaluation of disciplines like zoology and astronomy?

The discovery of the New World

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48

Whose interests are the interests of traditional (a.k.a. foundational) intellectuals?

The ruling class

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49

Which one is an example of a traditional intellectual?

Domingo F Samiento (Ugarte?)

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50

What classic language was a symbol of intellectuality in colonial Spanish and Portuguese America?

Latin

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51

Which one is an example of an organic intellectual?

None of these answers is correct

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52

What element does not contribute to a sustainable socio-politico-economic system?

Continuous violent repression

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53

Which one of the following is not part of the ideological state apparatus?

the Army

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54

The institutions that conform the ideological state apparatus of a society adhere to the ideology that reproduces the system as it currently is, because that system benefits them. (T/F)

True

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55

What is not an example of something filtered out by the ideological state apparatus?

The New England Journal of Medicine not publishing in 2022 an article on the link between autism and vaccines

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56

What ideological state apparatus did the founding fathers of the newly independent nations in Latin America relied the least on to impose the Eurocentric ideology that they admire so much?

the religious apparatus

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57

What does an ideological state apparatus achieve?

No constant violent repression

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58

Which sociopolitical factor prevented the progress sought by the governments of the new Latin American states?

No redistribution of land and income to benefit the poor

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59

What is a caudillo?

A powerful man who ruled through the use of force

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60

Very wealthy landowners were usually

conservative

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61

Professional men, provincial landowners, and the formerly oppressed were usually

liberal

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62

Conservatives did not want

A society that benefitted the poor

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63

Liberals wanted

individual rights

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64

What plan did politicians of all sides have for the poor (the majority of people) in their newly independent countries?

They had no plans for them

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65

What did not happen in Latin America as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution?

Agriculture and cattle raising became a thing of the past

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66

Patronage politics takes place when those who are in power

reward loyalty using taxpayer money

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67

What is not a characteristic of a typical caudillo?

Humility

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68

Why was it an advantage for Brazil to retain the colonial institutions during its first years of independence, obtained in 1822?

It allowed for the geopolitical unity of the country

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69

What happened during the regency years in Brazil, while Brazilians waited for their new emperor to grow up?

Local governments became more powerful

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70

Which one of the following did not happen to Amerindian people in Spanish America during the second quarter of the 19th century?

Some became enslaved

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71

Which one of the following did not happen to African and Afrodescendant people in Latin America during the second quarter of the 19th century?

All were finally able to vote

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72

Who held power in the new Latin American states?

People who owned land

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73

Why was transculturation encouraged in the new nations?

To create new national identities

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74

While most of the oppressed majority did not rebel to overthrow the dominating elites, some sporadic rebellions did take place, usually carried out by groups that "kept a cultural distance from the larger society" (Keen 137). Why did this factor make a difference?

Because those groups had not assimilated the rules imposed the cultural hegemony.

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75

Being literate and eloquent became a source of prestige in the new Latin American states. How did this benefit the elite at the political level, seeing that—unlike the majority of the population—they had access to an education that would make them such?

They could look down on those who were not literate and eloquent, undermining their credibility as leaders.

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76

What was not achieved in Latin America before 1850?

All of these answers are correct

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77

Which one is not a characteristic shared by people who are enslaved in developed countries?

They have legal help

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78

Are slavery and capitalism compatible?

Yes

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79

In general, today's slaves are disposed of more easily than slaves in the past because

they are more readily replaceable

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80

Which of the following characteristics of the capitalist economic structure is not a factor that leads to trafficking and enslavement?

Its inherent evilness

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81

Why is it difficult to know just how many slaves are there, exactly?

All of these explanations are correct (disguised, hidden, dangerous to investigate)

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82

Which characteristic does not apply to the restavec practice in Haiti?

It is harmless

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83

What industry does not use enslaved people in Latin America?

minor league soccer

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84

What two regions in the Americas received the largest numbers of slaves until the 19th century?

South America and the Caribbean

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85

During the 19th century, the leaders in the new Latin American nations regarded ___________ as a model worthy of imitation.

the U.S.

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86

What U.S. doctrine promised to defend Latin American countries should any European power try to invade them?

The Monroe Doctrine

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87

What Peruvian product became the country's main export in the 19th century?

Bird poop

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88

Why did the Texas elites want their state to become independent?

Because they wanted slavery to continue being legal

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89

What current states did the U.S. not steal from Mexico?

Maine and Massachussets

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90

Who was Benito Juárez?

A Mexican liberal president

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91

To whom did the Mexican conservatives appeal for help to retain control of their country during the 19th century?

France

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92

Who became emperor of Mexico?

Maximilian

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93

What is celebrated on Cinco de Mayo?

Mexico's victory over the French at the Battle of Puebla

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94

What territories were the last two possessions retained by Spain in the Americas?

Cuba and Puerto Rico

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95

The intellectuals leading the Latin American countries at the turn of the 20th century were obsessed with

Europe

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96

The socialist laws promulgated in Mexico in 1917 not include

The elimination of all private property

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97

What was something that Argentina did to be more European-like?

It encouraged European immigration

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98

What problem did the port of Buenos Aires have?

The water was too shallow

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99

What was the Argentine Confederation?

Everything in Argentina except for Buenos Aires

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100

Why was it hypocritical of Brazil to participate in a war against the tyranny of Paraguay?

Because Brazil was a monarchy and had slaves

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