(Don't Know) Organization of the body

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108 Terms

1

anatomy

The study of body structure

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2

physiology

The study of body function

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3

levels of organization

atom, molecule, macromolecule, organelle, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism

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4

tissue

A group of similar cells that perform the same function and form into a tissue

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5

Name the 4 tissue types.

epithelial, connective, muscle, nervous

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6

organs

a group of tissues to form an organ

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7

system

group of organs that work together to perform complex body functions and specific system

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8

How to classify epithelial tissues?

Classification is based on the number of cell layers and shape

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9

Function of Epithelial tissue

protection, barrier, secretion, absorption, excretion,

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10

How is connective tissue characterized?

Extracellular matrix containing specialized proteins

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11

Name some examples of connective tissue

cartilage, bone, fat, blood

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12

anatomical position

To stand erect with arms at the sides and palms of the hands turned forward

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13

directional terms

Terms used to explain where one body structure is in relation to another

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14

anterior

front of the body

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15

posterior

toward the back

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16

ventral

Toward the belly

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17

dorsal

towards the back

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18

proximal

Closer to the point of attachment

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19

distal

away from the point of attachment

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20

superficial

near the surface

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21

deep

away from the surface

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22

prone

lying face down

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23

supine

Lying face up, with palms facing anteriorly

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24

section

to cut

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25

plane

body being divided by an imaginary flat plate

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26

sagittal

divides body into left and right

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27

midsagittal

the plane dividing the body into equal right and left halves

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28

frontal plane

Divides the body into front and back portions.

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29

transverse

Divides body into upper and lower parts

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30

dorsal body cavities

cranial cavity and spinal cavity

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31

ventral body cavities

thoracic, abdominal, pelvic cavity

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32

cranial cavity

brain

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Spinal cavity

spinal cord

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34

thoracic cavity

contains heart and lungs

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35

mediastinum cavity

midportion of the thoracic cavity containing the heart, trachea, esophagus, major arteries

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36

pleural cavities

contain the lungs

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37

abdominal cavity

Contains stomach, intestines, spleen, and liver, and other organs

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38

pelvic cavity

Contains urinary bladder, reproductive organs, and rectum

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39

abdominopelvic cavity

abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity

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40

diaphragm

Large, flat muscle at the bottom of the chest cavity that helps with breathing

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41

abdominopelvic quadrants

right upper quadrant, left upper quadrant, right lower quadrant, left lower quadrant

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42

9 abdominopelvic regions

R. hypochondriac — Epigastric — L. hypochondriac;

R. lumbar — Umbilical — L. lumbar;

R. inguinal — Hypogastric — L. inguinal

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43

axial

head, neck, trunk

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44

appendicular

upper and lower limbs

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45

abdominal region

abdomen

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46

antebrachial

forearm

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47

axillary

armpit

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48

brachial

upper arm

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49

buccal

cheek

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50

carpal

wrist

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51

cephalic

head

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52

cervical

neck

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53

cranial

skull

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54

crural

leg

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55

cubital

elbow

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56

cutaneous

pertaining to the skin

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57

digital

fingers or toes

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58

dorsal

back

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59

facial

face

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60

frontal

forehead

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61

nasal

nose

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oral

mouth

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orbital

eye

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zygomatic

cheek bone

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65

femoral

thigh

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66

gluteal

buttock

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67

inguinal

groin

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68

lumbar

lower back

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69

mammary

breast

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70

occipital

back of head

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71

olecranal

back of elbow

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palmar

palm of hand

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pedal

foot

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pelvic

pelvis

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perineal

region between the anus and external genitalia

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plantar

sole of foot

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77

popliteal

back of knee

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78

supraclavicular

Area above clavicle

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79

tarsal

ankle

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80

temporal

Side of skull

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81

thoracic

chest

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82

umbilical

navel, belly button

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83

volar

palm or sole

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84

metabolism

using energy to perform vital functions for growth, movement, reproduction which is required to maintain life

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85

catabolism

complex substance broken down into simpler compounds

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86

Anabolism

simple compounds being manufactured into complex substances (synthesis)

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87

homeostasis

relative constancy of the internal environment

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88

feedback loop

Occurs when an output of matter, energy, or information is fed back into the system as an input and leads to changes in that system.

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89

sensor

A device that responds to a physical stimulus (as heat, light, sound, pressure, magnetism, or a particular motion) and transmits a resulting impulse (as for measurement or operating a control).

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90

control center

processes the signal and sends instructions

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91

effector

an organ or cell that acts in response to a stimulus.

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92

negative feedback loop

A feedback loop in which a system responds to a change by returning to its original state, or by decreasing the rate at which the change is occurring.

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93

positive feedback loop

a feedback loop in which change in a system is amplified and increasing productivity

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94

flexion

Decreases the angle of a joint

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95

extension

increases the angle of a joint

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96

dorsiflexion

flexing the foot with toes pointed upward

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97

plantar flexion

pointing toes with toes pointing downward

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98

abduction

movement away from the midline

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99

adduction

movement toward the midline

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100

medial rotation

rotation toward the midline

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