Anatomy Lecture Exam 1

studied byStudied by 11 people
get a hint

What is anatomy?

1 / 175

Tags and Description

176 Terms


What is anatomy?

the study of structure

New cards

What is physiology

the study of function

New cards

What are ways to study human anatomy

examining the structure of the human body, cadaver dissection, comparative anatomy, exploratory surgery, and medical imaging

New cards

What are the levels of human structure (from most to least complex)

inspection (viewing), palpation (feeling), auscultation (listening), and percussion (tapping)

New cards

What is the clinical significance of anatomical variation among humans

no 2 humans are exactly alike

New cards

What are some characteristics that distinguish living from non-living organisms

organization, cellular composition, metabolism, responsiveness, movement, homeostasis, development, reproduction, and evolution. NEED TO HAVE ALL TO BE CONSIDERED ALIVE

New cards

What is the importance of physiological variations

Because people differ in height, weight, sex, age, etc, treatments must be modified to suit these differences.

New cards

What is homeostasis and why is it central to physiology

the body's ability to detect a change, activate mechanisms that oppose it, and thereby maintain relatively stable internal conditions

New cards

What is negative feedback

allows for dynamic equilibrium within a limited range around a set point. The response is opposite the stimulus. The body senses a change and activates mechanisms to reverse it.

New cards

What is negative feedbacks importance to homeostasis

loss of homeostatic control causes illness or death

New cards

What is positive feedback

body senses change and amplifies it

New cards

What is an example of positive feedback

child birth, blood clotting, protein digestion, and generation of nerve signals

New cards

What is a beneficial effects of positive feedback

labor and blood clotting

New cards

what is a harmful effect of positive feedback

the vicious cycle of runaway fever

New cards

What is a gradient

a difference in chemical concentration, charge, temperature, or pressure between 2 points.

New cards

What is an element

simplest form of matter to have unique chemical properties

New cards

What is a compound

molecule composed of 2 or more different elements

New cards

What is an ion

charged particle (atom or molecule) with unequal number of protons and electrons

New cards

What is an electrolyte

substances that ionize in water and form solutions capable of conducting

New cards

What is a covalent bond

polar and nonpolar bonds

New cards

What is a nonpolar bond

electrons shared equally (strongest bond)

New cards

What is a polar bond

electrons shared equally (spend more time near oxygen)

New cards

What is a hydrogen bond

a weak attraction between a slightly positive hydrogen atom in one molecule and a slightly negative Oxygen or Nitrogen atom in another

New cards

What is an ionic bond

attractions between anions and cations, easily broken by water, and electrons are donated from one atom to another

New cards

What are the biologically important properties of water

water's role as a solvent helps cells transport and use substances like oxygen or nutrients

New cards

What is an acid

a proton donor (releases H+ ions in water)

New cards

What is a base

A proton acceptor (accepts H+ ions)

New cards

What is energy

capacity to do work

New cards

What is work

to do work means to move something

New cards

What is kinetic energy

the energy of motion (ex: water flowing through a dam, generating energy)

New cards

What is potential energy

energy stored in an object, but not currently doing work (ex: water behind a dam)

New cards

What is chemical energy

potential energy in molecular bonds

New cards

What causes reaction rates to increase

if the reactants are more concentrated, the temperature rises, catalysts are present

New cards

Why is carbon well suited to serve as the structural foundation of biological molecules

if there’s carbon, it’s organic. The carbon atom has unique properties that allow it to form covalent bonds to as many as four different atoms

New cards

What is the relevance of polymers to biology

used to build tissue and other components in living organisms

New cards

How are polymers formed

monomers covalently bind together to form polymers with the removal of a water molecule

New cards

How are polymers broken

Polymers are broken down into monomers via hydrolysis reactions

New cards

What is dehydration synthesis

How living cells form polymers, hydroxy; (OH-) is removed from one monomer, and hydrogen from another. Producing water as a by-product

New cards

What is hydrolosis

The opposite of dehydration synthesis. A water molecule ionizes into -OH and H+, the covalent bond linking one monomer to the other is broken, the OH- is then added to one monomer and the H+ the other.

New cards

What is the functions of carbohydrates

it is an energy source, all digested carbs are converted into glucose and oxidized to make ATP

New cards

What are 3 important monosaccharides

glucose, galactose and fructose

New cards

What are 3 important disaccharides

sucrose (table sugar), lactose (sugar in milk), and maltose (grain product)

New cards

What are lipids

hydrophobic organic molecules with a high ratio of HYDROGEN to OXYGEN. Have more calories per gram than carbs. Primary function is energy storage

New cards

What are the 3 most significant lipids

Triglycerides, phospholipids and steroids

New cards

What is a phospholipid

similar to neutral fats except 1 fatty acid is replaces by a phosphate group

New cards

What is a triglyceride

neutral fats. 3 fatty acids linked to glycerol. each bond is formed by dehydration synthesis. broken down by hydrolysis

New cards

What is a steroid

a lipid with 17 carbon atoms in 4 rings

New cards

What is a protein

a polymer of amino acids. Sometimes called a polypeptide. Proteins make up most of us

New cards

What is an enzyme

catalyze reactions including digestion of molecules, production of 2nd messengers

New cards

What is the structure of ATP

composed of adenine, ribose, and three phosphate groups

New cards

How is ATP produced

from the process of cellular respiration in the mitochondria of a cell. This can be through aerobic respiration, which requires oxygen, or anaerobic respiration, which does not. Aerobic respiration produces ATP (along with carbon dioxide and water) from glucose and oxygen.

New cards

What is the function of ATP

stores energy gained from exergonic reactions and releases it within seconds for physiological work. Holds energy in covalent bonds.

New cards

What are the 3 components of nucleotides

nitrogenous base, sugar, and 1 or more phosphate groups

New cards

What was the development of the cell theory

-all organisms composed of cells and cell products.

-Cells are the simplest structural and functional unit of life. -An organism's structure and functions are due to the activities of cells

-cells come only from pre-existing cells

-cells of all species exhibit biochemical similarities

New cards

What is a squamous shaped cell

thin, flat and scaly

New cards

What is a cuboidal shaped cell

squarish looking

New cards

What is a columnar shaped cell

more tall than wide

New cards

What is a polygonal-shaped cell

irregularly angular shapes

New cards

What is a stellate shaped cell

star like

New cards

What is a discoid shaped cell

disc shaped

New cards

What is a fusiform shaped cell

thick in the middle, tapered towards the end

New cards

What is a fibrous shaped cell

thread like

New cards

What is a spheroid (to ovoid) shaped cell

round (to oval)

New cards

How long are the average human cell

10-15 micrometers in diameter

New cards

What is the average EGG cell size in humans

(very large) 100 micrometers in diameter

New cards

How long can some NERVE cells be

over a meter long

New cards

What can limit cell size

-foreign increase in diameter

-volume increases more than surface area

New cards

Describe the viewing type of the light microscope (LM)

revealed plasma membrane, nucleus, and cytoplasm (fluid between nucleus and surface)

New cards

Describe the viewing type of the transmission electron microscope (TEM)

improved resolution (ability to reveal detail)

New cards

Describe the viewing type of the scanning electron microscope (SEM)

improved resolution further, but only for surface features

New cards

What are the major components of a cell

plasma (cell) membrane, cytoplasm, and extracellular fluid (ECF)

New cards

What is plasma (cell) membrane

surrounds the cell (defines boundaries) and is made of proteins & lipids

New cards

What is cytoplasm

interior of cell (organelles (cytoplasm), cytoskeleton, inclusions, and cytosol) very little space in cytoplasm

New cards

What is extracellular fluid (ECF)

fluid outside of cells includes tissue (interstitial) fluid

New cards

What is the structure of the cell membrane

The fundamental structure of the membrane is the phospholipid bilayer, which forms a stable barrier between two aqueous compartments.

New cards

What is the function of the plasma membrane

defines cell boundaries, governs interactions with other cells, controls the passage of materials in/out of cell

New cards

What are the membrane lipids

phospholipids, cholesterol and glycolipids

New cards

What is a phospholipid

  • 75% of membrane lipids are phospholipids

  • amphipathic molecules arranged in a bilayer

  • hydrophilic phosphate heads face water on each side of the membrane

  • hydrophobic tails: are directed toward the center (avoiding water)

  • drift laterally (keeping membrane fluid.

New cards

What is the function of phospholipids in the plasma membrane

acts as a barrier that protects the cell and enables multiple cellular processes to occur.

New cards

What is the function of cholesterol in the plasma membrane

  • 20% of the membrane lipids

  • holds phospholipids still & can stiffen membrane

New cards

What is the function of glycolipids in the plasma membrane

  • 5% of the membrane lipids

  • phospholipids with short carb chains on the extracellular face

  • contributes to glycocalyx - carb coating cell surface

New cards

What are the membrane proteins

  • 2% of the molecules but 50% of the weight of the membrane

  • integral proteins and peripheral proteins

New cards

What is the function of integral proteins in the plasma membrane

  • penetrate membrane

  • transmembrane proteins pass completely

  • hydrophilic regions contact cytoplasm, extracellular fluid

  • hydrophobic regions pass through lipids of the membrane

  • some drift in the membrane, and others are anchored to the cytoskeleton

New cards

What is the function of peripheral proteins in the plasma membrane

  • adhere to one face of the membrane (does NOT penetrate it)

  • usually tethered to the cytoskeleton

New cards

What are the functions of membrane proteins

receptors, 2nd-messenger systems, enzymes, channels, carriers, cell-identity markers and cell-adhesion markers

New cards

What is a second-messenger system

communicates within the cell receiving chemical messages

New cards

What are receptors

binds chemical signals

New cards

What are channels

allow hydrophilic solutes and water to pass thru membrane (some are always open, some are gated)

New cards

What are ligand-gated channels

responds to chemical messengers

New cards

What are voltage-gated channels

respond to charge changes

New cards

What are mechanically-gated channels

responds to physical stress on the cell

New cards

What are carriers

binds solutes and transfers them across the membrane

New cards

What are pumps

carriers that consume ATP

New cards

What is a cell-identity marker

glycoproteins acting as identification tags

New cards

What is a cell-adhesion marker

mechanically links cell to extracellular material

New cards

What is the function of glycocalyx

  • the thick, fuzzy outer covering of the plasma membrane

  • protects the cell

  • provides immunity to infection

  • defense against cancer

  • fertilization

  • embryonic development

  • helps the cell stay put in environments with a lot of stress

New cards

What are microvilli

  • extensions of the membrane (1-2 micrometers)

  • on some absorptive cells, they are very dense and appear as fringe (brush border)

New cards

What are the functions of microvilli

  • some microvilli have filaments that are tugged toward center of the cell to milk absorbed contents into the cell

New cards

What are cillia

  • monte cilia: respiratory tract, uterine tubes, ventricles of the brain, and ducts of testes

  • 50-200 on each cell

  • beat in waves, sweeping material across a surface in one direction

New cards

What are the functions of cillia

  • to move water relative to the cell in a regular movement of the cilia

  • cilia beat freely within a saline layer at the cell surface

    • chloride pumps Cl- into ECF

    • Na+ and H2O follow

  • mucus floats on top of the saline layer

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 160 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 126 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 36 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 76 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(5)
note Note
studied byStudied by 181234 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(731)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard37 terms
studied byStudied by 70 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(7)
flashcards Flashcard177 terms
studied byStudied by 77 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard81 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 142 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard85 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard203 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 137 people
Updated ... ago
3.8 Stars(5)
flashcards Flashcard78 terms
studied byStudied by 31 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)