unit 6 test

studied byStudied by 1 person
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

central nervous system

1 / 112

Tags and Description

Health

113 Terms

1

central nervous system

brain and spinal cord

New cards
2

peripheral nervous system

nerves

New cards
3

sensory nerves (afferent)

impulses are sent to the CNS; detect changes inside and outside of the body

New cards
4

integration

within CNS; processing incoming sensory input decision making

New cards
5

motor

impulse sent from CNS to effectors to cause response

New cards
6

neurons

nerve cells; conduct impulses

New cards
7

neuroglia

surrounds nerve cells; do not conduct impulses

New cards
8

parts of a neuron

cell body, dendrites, axon

New cards
9

cell body

cytoplasm, mitochondria, lysosomes, microtubules, golgi apparatus, nucleus

New cards
10

nissl bodies

chromatophilic substance that consists mainly of rough er

New cards
11

dendrites

receive input; highly branched. provide many receptors; can be 1 or more

New cards
12

axon

transmits input; carries the input away from the cell body; usually one long fiber

New cards
13

impulses travel

dendrite-> cell body-> axon

New cards
14

multipolar

1 axon and MANY dendrites

New cards
15

bipolar

1 axon and 1 dendrite

New cards
16

unipolar

1 process which splits into 2 branches, the peripheral and central processs

New cards
17

sensory neurons (afferent)

carry impulses from peripheral body parts to CNS

New cards
18

interneurons

lie within the CNS and form links with other neurons

New cards
19

motor neurons (efferent)

carry impulses from CNS to peripheral body parts

New cards
20

neuroglial cells in PNS

schwann and satellite

New cards
21

neuroglial cells in CNS

astrocytes; oligodendrocytes; microglia; ependyma

New cards
22

schwann cell

produce myelin on myelinated neurons

New cards
23

how do schwann cells wrap around

tightly wrap around fibers, forming a myelin sheath; just neurilemma with no myelin sheath

New cards
24

satellite cell

clusters of neuron cell bodies called ganglia

New cards
25

myelinated fiber

fiber that has a myelin sheath; impulse travels faster

New cards
26

unmyelinated fiber

fiber that does not have a myelin sheath; impulse travels slower

New cards
27

gray matter

nervous tissue containing lots of cell bodies and unmyelinated fibers

New cards
28

white matter

nervous tissue containing lots of myelinated fibers

New cards
29

astrocyte

large star shaped cells between neurons and blood vessels; structural support, communication, and transportation between blood vessels and neurons

New cards
30

oligodendrocytes

shaped like astrocytes with fewer processes, occur in rows along axons; form myelin sheath in the CNS ( NO neurilemma)

New cards
31

microglia

small cells with few processes found throughout CNS; structural support and phagocytosis

New cards
32

ependyma

cuboidal and columnar cells in the brain and spinal cord that line the cavities; help with diffusion

New cards
33

regeneration in CNS

no regeneration; no endoneurial tube and no neurilemma

New cards
34

regeneration in PNS

might occur; bc the endoneurium's presence may prevent scar tissue from coming in before the process can regrow

New cards
35

synapse

junction between axon of one neuron and dendrite or cell body of another neuron

New cards
36

presynaptic fiber

neuron which sends impulse to synapse; releases neurotransmitters into synaptic cleft

New cards
37

postsynaptic fiber

neuron which has receptors for the neurotransmitters

New cards
38

first step in synaptic transmission

Presynaptic knob of axon contains vesicles filled with neurotransmitters.

New cards
39

second step in synaptic transmission

When impulse reaches knob, Ca++ diffuses into cytoplasm.

New cards
40

third step in synaptic transmission

Vesicles move to membrane and release neurotransmitters into cleft.

New cards
41

fourth step in synaptic transmission

Neurotransmitters cross cleft and bind to receptors on postsynaptic membrane of neuron (either dendrite or cell body)

New cards
42

fifth step in synaptic transmission

If enough neurotransmitters are present, an action potential will occur.

New cards
43

sixth step in synaptic transmission

Neurotransmitters are either decomposed or they move back into presynaptic knob.

New cards
44

neuron potential

the concentration of ions on either side of the membrane affects its charge distribution

New cards
45

changes in potentials

when a stimulus encounters a neuron, it responds by changing its permeability to various ions, which affects the potentional

New cards
46

hyperpolarized

the resting membrane becomes more negative

New cards
47

depolarized

the resting membrane becomes more positive

New cards
48

nerve impulse

if stimulus is strong enough it cause Na gates to open Na flows into cell, depolarizing membrane action potential is reached at +30 mV K+gates open K+ moves out, repolarizing membrane hyperpolarizes for brief moment active transport pumps Na out and K in

New cards
49

resting potential

The charge distribution when a nerve is at rest. No impulse being conducted, so membrane is not very permeable to POTASSIUM (K+) and even less permeable to SODIUM (Na+). Active transport has to be used to pump K+ in and Na+ out. More negatively charged ions on the inside of the cell so more positive particles are going to move in (attraction): More Na+ on outside, K+ on inside Membrane is positive on the outside, negative on the inside Membrane is said to be polarized -70mV- is the difference in charges (resting potential)

New cards
50

action potential

the rapid sequence of Na and K movements

New cards
51

nerve impulse

chain reaction of action potentials

New cards
52

all-or-none response

if a neuron responds at all, it responds COMPLETELY or conducts COMPLETELY or not at all

New cards
53

refractory period

a short time period after a nerve impulse where a stimulus will not conduct the neuron

New cards
54

saltatory conduction

type of impulse conduction along myelinated fibers

New cards
55

nerve impulse speed

thick faster than thin myelinated faster than unmyelinated

New cards
56

excitatory postsynaptic potential

neurotransmitter triggers Na+ gates to open and membrane is depolarized (more likely reach action potential)

New cards
57

inhibitory postsynaptic potential

neurotransmitter triggers K+ gates to open and membrane is hyperpolarized (less likely to reach action potential)

New cards
58

facilitation

if a neuron receives a net excitatory stimulation, but is subthreshold it is more susceptible to an action potential the next time

New cards
59

monoamines

modifications of amino acids

New cards
60

epinephrine

boost of energy

New cards
61

dopamine

feel good hormone

New cards
62

serotonin

mood stabilizer

New cards
63

amino acids

unmodified amino acids

New cards
64

glycine

inhibitory neurons in brain and spinal cord

New cards
65

gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

inhibitory neurons in brain and spinal cord

New cards
66

peptides

short chains of amino acids

New cards
67

substance P

pain perception

New cards
68

endorphins

reduces pain

New cards
69

convergence

when a neuron receives impulses from 2 or more other neurons allows the brain to receive info from different regions of the body and respond in a special way

New cards
70

divergence

when 1 neuron sends impulses to 2 or more other neurons-results in an amplified response

New cards
71

sensory fibers

contains only sensory fibers (afferent)

New cards
72

motor fibers

contains only motor fibers (efferent)

New cards
73

mixed fibers

contains both sensory and motor fibers

New cards
74

general somatic efferent fibers

carry impulses from CNS to skeletal muscles

New cards
75

general visceral efferent fibers

carry impulses from CNS to smooth muscles and glands

New cards
76

general somatic afferent fibers

carry impulses from skeletal muscles and skin to CNS

New cards
77

general visceral afferent fibers

carry impulses from smooth muscles and glands to CNS

New cards
78

reflex arc

simple impulse pathway during a reflex

New cards
79

receptor

specialized nerve endings stimulated by change

New cards
80

effector

smooth muscle or gland that responds

New cards
81

meninges

found beneath the bone and soft tissues of nervous system; brain and skull, spinal cord and vertebral column protect the brain and spinal cord

New cards
82

3 layers outer to inner

dura mater arachnoid mater pia mater

New cards
83

meningitis

inflammation of the meninges

New cards
84

spinal cord

31 segments ends between 1 and 2 lumbar relays impulses and info between body and CNS

New cards
85

brain

cerebrum; cerebellum; brainstem

New cards
86

frontal lobe

intelligent though, planning, sense of consequence and rationalization

New cards
87

primary motor cortex

controls muscles of the body; right side controls left and vice versa

New cards
88

brocas area (speech)

muscle actions associated with speech

New cards
89

parietal lobe

temperature touch and pain sensations

New cards
90

primary sensory cortex

allows you to feel coordinates with motor cortex

New cards
91

wernicke's area

word recognition and expression

New cards
92

temporal lobe

auditory areas-hearing olfactory cortex-smelling

New cards
93

occipital lobe

visual cortex- vision

New cards
94

visual association cortex

allows us to understand what we are seeing

New cards
95

corpus callosum

a strip of white matter that connects your cerebrum's hemispheres together

New cards
96

thalamus

sensory impulses from other parts of the nervous system

New cards
97

hypothalamus

connects to pituitary, controls pituitary; body's thermostat

New cards
98

pituitary glad

secretes growth hormone

New cards
99

mammillary bodies

olfaction and swallowing reflexes

New cards
100

pineal gland

produces melatonin which helps with sleep

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 160 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 11 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(3)
note Note
studied byStudied by 126 people
Updated ... ago
4.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 13 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 36 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 76 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(5)
note Note
studied byStudied by 181234 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(731)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard37 terms
studied byStudied by 70 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(7)
flashcards Flashcard177 terms
studied byStudied by 77 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard81 terms
studied byStudied by 5 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 142 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard85 terms
studied byStudied by 15 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard203 terms
studied byStudied by 2 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard30 terms
studied byStudied by 137 people
Updated ... ago
3.8 Stars(5)
flashcards Flashcard78 terms
studied byStudied by 31 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)