PSYC 223-02: Final Exam Study Guide

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The tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences upon others' behavior is called the:

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The tendency for observers to underestimate situational influences and overestimate dispositional influences upon others' behavior is called the:

Fundamental Attribution Error

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Explicit thinking that is deliberate, reflexive and conscious is called:

Controlled processing

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Mental concepts or templates that guide our self-concept are called:

Schemas

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Every semester, you underestimate how long you will take to complete a research paper that is due at the end of the term. Your behavior is an example of the:

Overconfidence phenomenon

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Sharon typically follows those news channels that support her existing political beliefs. She is not inclined to watch news on other channels as they may disprove her preconceptions. Sharon's approach illustrates the:

Confirmation bias

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Which of the following is a thinking strategy that enables quick, efficient judgements?

a heuristic

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The idea that chance events are subject to our influence describes:

The illusion of control

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The theory of how people explain other's behavior by ascribing it to either dispositions or to external situations is called:

Attribution theory

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Sometimes the basis for one's belief is discredited but an explanation of why the belief might be true survives. Social psychologists refer to this as:

Belief perseverance

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In _ cultures, people less often perceive others in terms of personal dispositions than other cultures.

Collectivistic

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Research has found that people are _ to comply with a small request if they have denied a _ request first.

More likely; large

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Adam was considering visiting his family during spring vacation. However, after his father demands that he must be home during spring vacation, Adam decides to remain at college instead. Adam's behavior is best understood in terms of.

Reactance

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Conformity that occurs when people accept evidence about reality that is provided by other people is called:

Informational influence

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Though she is opposed to capital punishment, Lisa is asked to give a speech in favor of it to round out a class debate. Cognitive dissonance theory predicts that her true attitude will undergo the most change if she

agrees to give the speech without special incentives

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If you have a positive attitude toward "pro-life" what function would your attitude likely serve?

Value expressive

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When external rewards are insufficient to justify our behavior, we tend to justify the behavior internally. Which of the following theories explains this insufficient justification effect?

Cognitive dissonance

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When a persuasive message matters of personal value or taste, _ communicators have more influence.

Similar

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in a variation of the Milgram study, teachers are required to force the learner's hand into contact with a shock plate. Under these conditions

there was a decrease in compliance to shock.

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Lately you have noticed that your favorite athlete is on your cereal box, highway billboards and television commercials for running shoes. What type of marketing strategy is being used to persuade you to purchase these products?

Peripheral route

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Central route processing is related to _ attitudes.

explicit

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Attitude inoculation suggests that to get people to become more committed to their original position, you should

mildly attack their position.

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Researchers have found that when fear, aroused by a persuasive message, is relevant to a pleasurable activity (e.g., sex or smoking), people's reaction is often

denial.

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Which of the following is NOT one of the theories presented in the text as an explanation for why attitudes follow behavior?

Self-consistency theory

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The extent to which members of a group are bound together, such as by attraction for one another, is called

Cohesion.

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After hearing a great deal about the benefits of soy products from your friends, you decide to drink soy milk instead of cow's milk. Your behavior is best described as

acceptance

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In a variation of the Milgram study, the learner was in the same room as the teacher. Under these conditions

there was a reduction in compliance to shock.

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When our behavior is a result of our boss telling us to do something, it is a form of

obedience.

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Researchers have found that when a message is difficult to comprehend, persuasion is greatest when the message is

written.

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Research has found that _ speakers are rated as more objective, intelligent, and knowledgeable.

fast

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The _ argues that attitudes don't change over time; older people largely hold onto the attitudes they adopted when they were young.

Generational explanation

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Although he made a promise to himself to not take illegal drugs, Tom gave into peer pressure at a party to use drugs because he did not want to be rejected by the others. Tom's conformity is a result of

normative influence.

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Which statement is NOT true according to attitude research?

Attitudes predict behavior when role playing.

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Persuasion can best be resisted by

making a public commitment to one's own opposing position.

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The _ route to persuasion occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker's attractiveness.

peripheral

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Sherif is to the study of _ as Ashe is to the study of _

acceptance; compliance

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When people allow the example of others to validate how to think, feel, and act, Cialdini would call this the _ principle of persuasion.

social proof

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Which route to persuasion is most likely to create long-lasting attitudes and behavioral changes?

central

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A concern for _ produces normative influence, while a concern for _ produces informational influence.

social acceptance; being correct

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The way that _ effect _ was vividly demonstrated in Zimbardo's (1971) classic study of a simulated prison.

behaviors; attitudes

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The insufficient justification effect involves reducing dissonance by _ justifying one's behavior when _ justification is insufficient.

internally; external

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Impression management is to _ as cognitive dissonance is to _.

self-preservation; self-justification

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Even though Betty really dislikes wearing a dress, feeling that it's expected, she decides to wear one to her cousin's wedding. This is an example of

compliance.

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According to the overjustification effect, promising children a reward for doing what they already intrinsically enjoy will

lead to less enjoyment of the activity.

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You are attending a lecture by a banker and you expect her to advocate for bank savings accounts. However, she advocates for stock investments instead. Since her message goes against her own self interest, you are likely to perceive her as _ and the message as _.

sincere; persuasive

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Unlike the central route to persuasion, the peripheral route to persuasion is _.

more implicit

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In the Milgram studies, which of the following is NOT one of the factors that influenced obedience?

the authority's closeness to the learner

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Encouraging people first to sign a petition against gun violence increased the likelihood that they would later contribute to a fund for victims of gun violence. This is an example of the _ phenomenon.

foot-in-the-door

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Research suggests that the attitudes-follow-behavior effect is likely

when we role play.

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A business that advertises that "We are the fastest growing tax preparers in the country" is using the _ principle of persuasion.

scarcity

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