lecture 19

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during nucleotide metabolism, _ is removed during break down

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1

during nucleotide metabolism, _ is removed during break down

nitrogen

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2

nucleotides _ give us energy, because don’t want to breakdown DNA to get energy

do not

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3

the constituents of nucleic acids are:

base, sugar, phosphodiester linkage

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4

the base of nucleic acids are _ bases and can be either _ or _

nitrogenous, purine, pyrimidine

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5

the constituents of nucleic acids:

the sugar can either be _ or _

ribose, deoxyribose

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6

a purine has _ cyclic rings

2

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a _ has 2 cyclic rings

purine

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a _ has 1 cyclic ring

pyrimidine

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9

a pyrimidine has _ cyclic ring

1

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10

_ is the sugar for RNA and has a hydroxyl (OH) group on the 2’ carbon

ribose

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11

ribose is the sugar for _ and has a hydroxyl (OH) group on the 2’ carbon

RNA

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ribose is the sugar for RNA and has a _ group on the 2’ carbon

hydroxyl (OH)

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ribose is the sugar for RNA and has a hydroxyl (OH) group on the _ carbon

2’

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14

_ is the sugar for DNA and has a hydrogen (H) on the 2’ carbon

deoxyribose

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deoxyribose is the sugar for _ and has a hydrogen (H) on the 2’ carbon

DNA

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16

deoxyribose is the sugar for DNA and has a _ on the 2’ carbon

hydrogen (H)

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17

deoxyribose is the sugar for DNA and has a hydrogen (H) on the _ carbon

2’

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18

chemical structures of nucleotides:

5’-ribonucleotide:

phosphate group on the _ carbon

OH group on the _ carbon

nitrogenous base (purine or pyrimidine) on _ carbon

5’, 2’, 1’

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19

chemical structures of nucleotides:

_:

phosphate group on the 5’ carbon

OH group on the 2’ carbon

nitrogenous base (purine or pyrimidine) on 1’ carbon

5’-ribonucleotide

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20

chemical structures of nucleotides:

_:

phosphate group on the 3’ carbon

H on the 2’ carbon

nitrogenous base (purine and pyrimidine) on 1’ carbon

3’-deoxynucleotide

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21

chemical structures of nucleotides:

3’-deoxynucleotide:

phosphate group on the _ carbon

H on the _ carbon

nitrogenous base (purine and pyrimidine) on _ carbon

3’, 2’, 1;

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22

pyrimidines have a _ ring cyclic structure and includes _

1, CUT

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23

purines have a _ ring cyclic structure and includes _

2, AG

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24

phosphodiester bond forms between the _ of the sugar of nucleic acids (5’ on ribonucleotide, 3’ on deoxynucleotide)

phosphate groups

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25

a _ is composed of the base plus sugar

nucleoside

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a _ is composed of the base, sugar, and phosphate group - come together using phosphodiester linkage

nucleotide

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27

uric acid is a _

purine

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28

how do scientists know where the molecules that make up purines come from?

take derivatives and label with _ or other non _ materials, run through the mass spec, determine where labeled molecule is in purine structure

radioactive

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29

the atomic origins of purines shows that if you don’t have the molecules running through _, you cannot produce purines, DNA or RNA, or replicate

metabolic pathways

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30

the components that make up purines include:

_, _, _, _, and _

aspartate amine, bicarbonate (HCO3-), glycine, formate, glutamine amide

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an amide is composed of 2 _ chains (glutamine amide)

nitrogen

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32

the initially synthesized purine derivative is _. from here, can make other purines

inosine monophosphate (IMP)

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the initially synthesized purine derivative inosine monophosphate (IMP) is made up of _, _, and _

phosphate group, sugar, hypoxanthine base (nitrogenous base)

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34

in de novo biosynthesis of IMP, _ total high energy molecules are used

7

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35

de novo biosynthesis of IMP involves _ reactions

11

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36

the first two high energy molecules are used during reaction _ of de novo biosynthesis of IMP

1

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37

the third high energy molecule is used in reaction _ of de novo biosynthesis of IMP

3

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38

the fourth high energy molecule is used in reaction _ of de novo biosynthesis of IMP

5

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39

the fifth high energy molecule is used in reaction _ of de novo biosynthesis of IMP

6

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40

the sixth high energy molecule is used in reaction _ of de novo biosynthesis of IMP

7

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41

the seventh high energy molecule is used in reaction _ of de novo biosynthesis of IMP

8

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42

making nucleotides and nucleic acids is a very _ intensive process - the body only does it if it has enough to spend. need an abundance of resources to make more genetic material for replication

energy

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43

the de novo biosynthesis of IMP begins with a _ molecule, which is made from _ coming off of _

ribose-5-phosphate, PPP, glycolysis

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44

in reaction 1 of de novo biosynthesis of IMP, _ are added onto the future purine backbone

2 phosphates from ATP

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45

in reaction 2 of de novo biosynthesis of IMP, _ are removed and _ is added onto the future purine backbone

2 phosphate groups, glutamine amide (NH2)

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46

in reaction 3 of de novo biosynthesis of IMP, _ is added onto the future purine backbone

glycine molecule

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47

in reaction 5 of de novo biosynthesis of IMP, the second _ is incorporated into the future purine backbone

glutamine

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48

in reaction 7 of de novo biosynthesis of IMP, _ is incorporated into the future purine backbone

C from bicarbonate

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49

in reaction 8 of de novo biosynthesis of IMP, _ is incorporated into the future purine backbone

aspartate amine

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50

in reaction 9 of de novo biosynthesis of IMP, _ is lost from the future purine backbone, but _ stays

fumarate, nitrogen group

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51

in reaction 11 of de novo biosynthesis of IMP, _ is released

water

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52

1 IMP can be converted into either _ or _

AMP, GMP

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53

it takes the 7 high energy molecules of IMP biosynthesis plus an additional _ high energy molecule to create AMP

1

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54

it takes the 7 high energy molecules of IMP biosynthesis plus an additional _ high energy molecules to create GMP

2

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55

after IMP conversion into _ or _, purines can then attach onto other nucleotides and start being a part of RNA or DNA

AMP, GMP

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56

immunosuppressant inhibits _

IMP dehydrogenase

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57

_ inhibits IMP dehydrogenase

immunosuppresant

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58

_ is an immunosuppressant that inhibits IMP dehydrogenase

mycophenolic acid

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59

_ directly impact replication processes, therefor affecting overall growth

immunosuppressants

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60

an immunosuppressed individual may have similar amounts of IMP like a normal individual, but the body prioritizes making A over G because of suppressing the enzyme that makes G, which is _. this leads to higher rates of mutation because not enough GMPs, so replication processes tend to stall out

IMP dehydrogenase

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61

overall, purine biosynthesis is activated by high levels of _ and inhibited by high levels of _

substrate, product

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62

control of purine biosynthesis:

_ activates the PRPP to 5-phosphoribosylamine step (catalyzed by amidophosphoribosyl transferase)

PRPP

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63

control of purine biosynthesis:

high levels of _, _, and _, inhibit the PRPP to 5-phosphoribosylamine step (catalyzed by amidophosphoribosyl transferase)

AMP, ADP, ATP

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64

control of purine biosynthesis:

high levels of _ inhibit the IMP to adenylosuccinate step catalyzed by adenylosuccinate synthetase

AMP

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65

control of purine biosynthesis:

high levels of _ inhibit the ribose-5-phosphate to PRPP step catalyzed by ribose phosphate pyrophosphokinase

ADP

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66

control of purine biosynthesis:

high levels of _ inhibit the ribose-5-phosphate to PRPP step catalyzed by ribose phosphate pyrophosphokinase

GDP

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67

control of purine biosynthesis:

high levels of _, _, _and _ inhibit the PRPP to 5-phosphoribosylamine step catalyzed by amidophosphoribosyl transferase

XMP, GMP, GDP, GTP

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68

control of purine biosynthesis:

high levels of _ inhibit the IMP to XMP step catalyzed by IMP dehydrogenase

GMP

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69

_ is synthesized through the assembly of a purine base on ribose-5-phosphate

IMP

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70

IMP is synthesized through the assembly of a _ base on _

purine, ribose-5-phosphate

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71

_ convert IMP-derived AMP and GMP to ATP and GTP

kinases

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72

kinases convert IMP-derived _ and _ to ATP and GTP

AMP, GMP

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73

kinases convert IMP-derived AMP and GMP to _ and _

ATP, GTP

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74

_ is regulated by feedback inhibition and a feedforward activation

purine nucleotide synthesis

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75

purine nucleotide synthesis is regulated by _ and a _

feedback inhibition, feedforward activation

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76

_ reactions convert purines to their nucleotide forms

salvage

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77

salvage reactions convert purines to their _ forms

nucleotide

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78

the atomic origins of pyrimidines are _ complicated than purines

less

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79

the atomic origins of pyrimidines include:

_, _, and _

glutamine amide, bicarbonate (HCO3-), aspartate

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80

de novo synthesis of UMP involves _ reactions

6

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81

_ of pyrimidine biosynthesis is the equivalent of IMP of purine biosynthesis

UMP

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82

de novo synthesis of UMP uses _ high energy bonds

4

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83

the first set of two high energy bonds are used during reaction _ of UMP synthesis

1

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84

the second set of two high energy bonds are used during reaction _ of UMP synthesis

5

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85

reaction 1 of de novo synthesis of UMP adds the _ and the _ to the pyrimidine backbone

glutamine amide, bicarbonate

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86

reaction 2 of de novo synthesis of UMP adds the _ to the pyrimidine backbone

aspartate

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87

the 4 high energy bonds plus an additional _ ATP molecule is required to create CTP from UTP

1

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88

regulation of _ biosynthesis is different between prokaryotes and eukaryotes/animals

pyrimidine

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89

in E. coli/prokaryote regulation of pyrimidine biosynthesis:

_ activates the carbamoyl phosphate to carbamoyl aspartate step catalyzed by ATCase

ATP

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90

in E. coli/prokaryote regulation of pyrimidine biosynthesis:

_ inhibits the carbamoyl phosphate to carbamoyl aspartate step catalyzed by ATCase

CTP

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91

only _ inhibits the carbamoyl phosphate to carbamoyl aspartate step catalyzed by ATCase because the reduced genome size of prokaryotes allows similar genes to work together - genes next to each other are controlled by a single promoter

CTP

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92

in animal/eukaryote regulation of pyrimidine biosynthesis:

_ and _ activate the HCO3-+glutamine+ATP to carbamoyl phosphate step catalyzed by carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II

ATP, PRPP

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93

in animal/eukaryote regulation of pyrimidine biosynthesis:

_ and _ inhibit the HCO3-+glutamine+ATP to carbamoyl phosphate step catalyzed by carbamoyl phosphate synthetase II

UDP, UTP

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94

in animal/eukaryote regulation of pyrimidine biosynthesis:

_ inhibits the OMP to UMP step catalyzed by OMP decarboxylase

UMP

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95

_ activates both purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis in higher animals

PRPP

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96

in animals/eukaryotes, almost all genes have separate promoters and regulators, which is why there are _ areas for regulation in pyrimidine biosynthesis than there are for prokaryotes/E. coli

more

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97

_ is synthesized as a pyrimidine base to which ribose-5-phosphate is added

UMP

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98

UMP is synthesized as a _ base to which ribose-5-phosphate is added

pyrimidine

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99

UMP is synthesized as a pyrimidine base to which _ is added

ribose-5-phosphate

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100

CTP and UTP are derived from _

UMP

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