Human Diseases Exam 2

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Plasma contains the protein _____, which promotes the blood's ability to hold water and maintain pressure inside the blood vessels.

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Biology

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1

Plasma contains the protein _____, which promotes the blood's ability to hold water and maintain pressure inside the blood vessels.

albumin

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2

Hemophilia A is caused by a deficiency in clotting factor

VIII

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3

_____ are produced in the bone marrow and are essential for blood clotting.

Platelets

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4

Polycythemia vera is most commonly seen in _____.

older men

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5

Vitamin _____ is required for the synthesis of the prothrombin and thrombin clotting factors.

K

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6

Hemophilia A is an X-linked _____.

recessive disorder that primarily affects males

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7

Risk factors for _____ anemia include excessive blood loss, menstruation, pregnancy, and rapid growth during adolescence.

iron-deficiency

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8

_____, or red blood cells, make up about half of the blood's volume.

Erythrocytes

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9

In the lungs, hemoglobin binds to oxygen, becoming _____.

oxyhemoglobin

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10

Approximately _____ of African Americans have the sickle cell anemia trait.

10%

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11

In _____, the alveolar walls break down, adjacent alveoli fuse, and the lungs lose their elasticity.

emphysema

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12

There are two basic types of medications used in _____ treatment: steroids and other anti-inflammatory medications and bronchodilators.

asthma

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13

Normal arterial blood gases should be high in carbon dioxide and low in oxygen.

False

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14

With pneumonia, the _____ fill with pus and fluid, which makes breathing painful and limits oxygen intake.

alveoli

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15

Tuberculosis is caused by a _____.

bacteria

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16

Generally, two distinct diseases fall into the category of COPD: _____.

emphysema and chronic bronchitis

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17

_____ fluid lubricates the lung and thoracic surfaces, reducing friction as the lungs expand and contract.

Pleural

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18

Normal oxygen saturation rates are greater than _____.

90%

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19

The _____ are surrounded by blood capillaries and are the site of gas exchange.

alveoli

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20

Cystic fibrosis is an _____ disease.

inherited

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21

_____ is diagnosed by the signs and symptoms as well as a biopsy of the small intestine.

Celiac disease

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22

The painful symptoms of _____ frequently occur at night when the body is horizontal and relaxed.

GERD

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23

Inflammation of the gallbladder is usually associated with _____.

gallstones

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24

_____ mainly affect alcoholics and those with cirrhosis of the liver.

Esophageal varices

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25

Colorectal cancer grows _____.

slowly and tends to remain localized

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26

The typical symptoms of _____ include diarrhea with pus, blood, and mucus in the stool.

ulcerative colitis

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27

The worm-like shape of the appendix is located on the _____.

cecum

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28

Most digestion occurs in the first part of the small intestine, the _____.

duodenum

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29

_____ is secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder.

Bile

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30

The pancreas is a gland that has both endocrine and exocrine functions.

True

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31

Renal cell carcinoma is a relatively common type of cancer.

False

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32

In chronic kidney disease, the ability of the renal tubules to concentrate urine is _____.

absent

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33

The color and volume of urine may indicate disease, for example diabetics produce _____.

large volumes of pale and dilute urine

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34

To prevent kidney stones, or their reoccurrence, _____.

fluid intake should be increased and dietary calcium reduced

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35

A significant sign of acute kidney injury include oliguria, or _____.

low urine output

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36

At least three different genes influence the occurrence of _____.

Wilm's tumor

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37

In most cases of _____, signs and symptoms include recurrent kidney stones.

medullary sponge kidney

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38

_____ eventually becomes the chief sign of renal cell carcinoma.

Painless hematuria

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39

Pus in the urine is called _____, which makes the urine sample turbid or cloudy.

pyuria

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40

The hormones _____ play an important role in the regulation of the nephron's ability to reabsorb salt and water.

aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone

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41

_____ has a slow onset of signs and symptoms resembling acute bacterial prostatitis that wax and wane.

Chronic bacterial prostatitis

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42

Starting in their _____, women are strongly urged to examine their breasts monthly for signs of cancer.

20s

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43

The occurrence of a spontaneous abortion is usually between the _____ week of pregnancy.

seventh and twelfth

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44

With some breast cancer tumor cells having estrogen and/or progesterone receptors, the hormones binding to those receptors _____.

stimulate the tumor cells to divide

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45

The most important risk factor for cervical cancer is a _____ infection.

human papilloma virus

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46

An infant born before the eighth month of gestation has a greater chance of having _____.

cryptorchidism

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47

Genital warts are transmitted by _____ infections

human papilloma viral

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48

Clinically, _____ is defined as total blood loss exceeding 80 mL per menses lasting longer than 7 days.

menorrhagia

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49

Estrogen and progesterone secreted by the _____ drive the menstrual cycle.

ovaries

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50

The etiology of trichomoniasis is the _____ Trichomonas vaginalis.

protozoan

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51

Approximately 75% to 80% of all cases of hypoadrenalism are due to _____.

autoimmune process

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52

The parathyroid glands regulate the levels of circulating _____.

calcium and phosphate

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53

In a male child, precocious puberty is defined as the onset of puberty before the age of _____.

9

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54

The classic signs of _____ include fat accumulation behind the shoulders, known as a buffalo hump, and a round "moon-shaped" face.

Cushing's syndrome

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55

Acromegaly is the result of _____.

excess GH secretion in adulthood

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56

_____ is often the only sign of Conn's syndrome.

Hypertension

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57

The endocrine functions of the pancreas consist of synthesis, storage, and release of the following; except _____.

glucocorticoids

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58

_____ is the most common form of hyperthyroidism.

Graves' disease

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59

_____ disease can cause a life-threatening condition, known as acute adrenal insufficiency, with death resulting from shock and cardiovascular collapse.

Addison's

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60

In Type II diabetes mellitus, the body resists the effects of insulin or does not produce enough insulin to maintain a normal glucose level.

True

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61

formed elements

red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets

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62

plasma

consists of mostly water, which carries nutrients, wastes, ions, hormones, clotting factors, albumin, and antibodies

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63

red blood cells (erythrocytes)

-make up about half of the blood’s volume

-most abundant cells in the human body

-carry oxygen

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64

white blood cells (leukocytes)

-include neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes

-produced in the bone marrow

-defend tissues against infections and foreign substances

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65

platelets

-are produced in the bone marrow and are essential for blood clotting

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66

Iron-deficiency anemia

-leading cause of anemia worldwide

-risk factors for iron-deficiency anemia include excessive blood loss, menstruation, pregnancy, and rapid growth during adolescence

-signs and symptoms of iron deficiency include weakness and fatigue

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67

Anemia of Chronic Disease

-The etiology of anemia of chronic disease most often is a defect in erythropoesis, the production of red blood cells

-Anemia of chronic disease may resolve if the underlying disease is treated

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68

Anemia of Renal Disease

This type of anemia is caused by the kidney’s failure to produce adequate amounts of erythropoietin

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69

Megaloblastic Anemia

-caused by impaired DNA synthesis

-Megaloblastic red blood cells tend to be large and contain an increased ratio of RNA to DNA

- deficiency in vitamin B12 and/or folic acid

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70

Vitamin B12 –Deficiency Anemia

- is caused by inadequate absorption or intake of vitamin B12 called intrinsic factor

-Causes of pernicious anemia include inadequate diet, impaired absorption, increased requirements, or increased excretion of vitamin B12

-supplementation

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71

Folic Acid–Deficiency Anemia

-is common in the Western world, where consumption of raw fruits and vegetables is low

-Folic acid absorption can be impaired by inflammation of the bowel, as in Crohn’s disease, and adverse effects of certain medications

-can be detected by measurement of serum folic acid levels

-supplementation

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72

Hemolytic Anemia

-a reduction in circulating red blood cells that is caused by accelerated destruction of red blood cells

-Treatment of hemolytic anemia depends on the underlying etiology

Splenectomy, or removal of the spleen, is recommended in cases of inherited causes of hemolytic anemia

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73

hemoglobinopathies

-disorders affecting the structure, function, or production of hemoglobin

-sickle cell anemia and thalassemia

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74

Sickle Cell Anemia

-a genetic disorder marked by severe hemolytic anemia, painful episodes called sickle cell crises, and increased susceptibility to infections

-more severe if homozygous

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75

Thalassemia

-an inherited blood disorder in which there is deficient synthesis of one or more of the protein chains required for proper formation and optimal performance of the hemoglobin molecule

-most common genetic disorders in the world

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76

Thrombocytopenia

An abnormally small number of circulating platelets, abnormal bleeding

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77

Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

excess destruction of platelets

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78

Hemophilia A

an X-linked recessive dis-order that primarily affects males. It is caused by a deficiency in clotting factor VIII, and the severity of the disease depends on how the genetic defect affects the activity of the clotting factor

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79

Von Willebrand’s disease

an inherited bleeding disorder that is most often diagnosed in adulthood. It is caused by a deficiency in the von Willebrand clotting factor (vWF)

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80

Neutropenia

a reduction of circulating neutrophils, which increases the risk for bacterial and fungal infections

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81

Identify common signs and symptoms associated with respiratory diseases

Chest pain

Dyspnea or difficulty breathing

Wheezing Cough—productive or nonproductive, acute or chronic Hemoptysis or coughing blood

Fatigue Fever—low or high grade

Dysphonia or hoarseness

Cyanosis—a blue color in skin and nails; indicator of low oxygen

Sinus and nasal drainage

Clubbing of fingers or toes, indicator of low oxygen or circulatory problems

Tachypnea or rapid breathing

Abnormal breath sounds

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82

Describe diagnostic testing used in respiratory diseases

Physical examination of the respiratory system begins with auscultation, or listening to the chest with a stethoscope

Pulse oximetry is a procedure used to measure the oxygen level (or oxygen saturation) in the blood

Biopsy and imaging tests including bronchoscopy, laryngoscopy, chest x-rays, and CT and MRI scans

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83

The Common Cold

acute contagious disease of the upper respiratory tract that is marked by inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose, throat, eyes, and eustachian tubes with a watery, then purulent, discharge

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84

Allergic Rhinitis

is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose caused by allergic reaction to airborne substances

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85

Sinusitis

inflammation of the mucous mem-brane lining of the sinuses

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86

Tonsillitis

infectious inflammation of the tonsils

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87

Pharyngitis

inflammation of the pharynx, is characterized by pain in the throat

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88

laryngitis

inflammation of the larynx or voice box

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89

Influenza

an acute, highly contagious respiratory infection

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90

Pneumonia

an infection in one or both lungs affecting primarily the alveoli

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91

Tuberculosis

a potentially fatal contagious disease that can affect almost any part of the body but is mainly an infection of the lungs

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92

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

is a preventable and treatable disease characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible

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93

Emphysema

a long-term, progressive obstructive lung disease in which the alveoli that promote oxygen exchange between the air and the bloodstream are destroyed

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94

Asthma

a condition in which the bronchial tubes in the lungs react to certain stimuli by becoming inflamed

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95

Cystic fibrosis (CF)

an inherited disease affecting the exocrine glands of the lungs and pancreas, causing these glands to secrete excessive thick mucus

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96

Pleurisy

an inflammation of the pleural membranes that line the chest wall and encase each lung

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97

Pneumothorax

a collection of air or gas in the chest or pleural space that causes part or all of a lung to collapse

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98

Atelectasis

a collapse of lung tissue affecting part or all of one lung

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99

Pulmonary embolism

is a blockage in one or more arteries of the lungs

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100

Lung cancer

a malignant neoplasm arising in lung tissue

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