Cognitive and Behavioural Psychology

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What is Psychology?

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Chapters 1,2,3,5

494 Terms

1

What is Psychology?

The scientific study of both behaviour and mind

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2

Mind

The contents of conscious experience, including sensations, perceptions, thoughts, and emotions

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3

Basic Research of psychology examples

Abnormal, Behavioural genetics, behavoiural neuroscience, cognitive, comparative, developmental, personality, social

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4

Applied research examples

Consumer, educational, forensic and legal, human factors, health, industrial and organizational, school

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5

Clinical Psychologists

Identify, prevent, and relieve psychological distress and dysfunction

Take GRE, Graduate School, PhD or PsyD

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6

Psychiatrists

Same as clinical psychologists, also determine the source of illness

Take MCAT, Medical School and Residency, MD or DD

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7

Counselling Psychologist

Help people manage ongoing life crises or situations or transitions between the two

Take GRE, Graduate School, EdD or PhD

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8

Post truth

relating to or denoting circumstances in which objective facts are less influential in shaping public opinion then appeals to emotion and personal belief

In this era of post-truth politics, it’s easy to cherry-pick data and come to whatever conclusion you desire

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9

What was psychology originally known as?

Philosophy of the mind

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10

Tabula Rasa

blank slate

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11

Who documented the first psychological disorder?

A Persian Phyisicain

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12

Psychology was the union of what two studies?

Physiology and philosophy

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13

Empiricism

View that knowledge arises directly from observation and experience

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14

Dualism

Philosophical idea that mind and body are separate

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15

What did Rene Descartes argue?

That the mind is inherently immaterial

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16

Is dualism practiced by psychologists today?

no

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17

Behaviour

Any observable action (ex. words, gestures, responses?) that can be repeated, measured and affected by a situation to produce or remove some outcome. This can also refer to biological activity like cellular actions

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18

Basic Research

Work done to understand fundamental principles of behaviour and mind

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19

Applied Psychology

used to solve practical problems by influencing behaviour or changing environment

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20

What does applied psychology today focus on?

Today focuses on taking research that was originally basic and applying it to practical problems

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21

Transitional Research

Research that attempts to take basic findings and turn them into solutions for practical problems

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22

Clinical Psychology

Identifying, preventing and relieving distress or dysfunction that is psychological in origin

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23

What is the science of psychology rooted in?

Empiricist tradition (the idea that true knowledge about psychology can only be obtained through observation

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24

Nativism

the idea that some forms of knowledge are inborn or innate

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25

Biological Determinism

The view that all human behaviour is controlled by genetic and biological influences

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26

Phrenology

The pseudoscientific study of the shape of the human skull in an attempt to associate with specific characteristics, thoughts or abilities

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27

What do ponzo illusions demonstrate?

Not all knowledge is a result of experience

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28

Who was Wilhelm Wundt?

Physiologist, medical doctor and philosopher

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29

What was Wundt interested in?

Sensation and perception (he focused on mental experience and the mind)

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30

What was Wundt considered the father of?

Modern Psychology (he was the first to self identify as psychologist)

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31

Who was Edwards Tichener?

A student of Wundt who had the goal of breaking the brain into its fundamental pieces

Edward Titchener was a prominent psychologist known for his work on structuralism and introspection. He aimed to establish psychology as a scientific discipline.

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32

Systematic Introspection

One of the first strategies to make inferences about the contents of the mind. It was an effort to standardize the way that people reported their own experiences.

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33

When was the American Psychology Association formed?

1892

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34

Structuralism

Who: Structuralism was a school of thought in various disciplines, including linguistics, anthropology, and psychology.

What: Structuralism aimed to analyze and understand phenomena by examining the underlying structures and systems that govern them.

Where: Structuralism emerged in Europe in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, particularly in France and Switzerland.

When: Structuralism’s peak was from the 1950s to the 1970s, but its influence continued beyond that period.

Why: Structuralists believed that understanding the underlying structures of language, culture, and the human mind would reveal fundamental truths about human experience and society.

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35

Voluntarism

Focused in the role of the will in organizing conscious experience (Wundt’s school of thought)

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36

What method began receiving significant criticism?

Systematic Introspection

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37

Who was the 1st person to get a Ph D.

Stanely Hall

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38

Functionalism

An early movement that proponents believed that an understanding of a behaviour of process’ function was critical to understanding it’s operation

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39

What theory heavily influenced the functionalist movement?

Darwin’s theory of evolution

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40

Who is considered the father of American Psychology

William James

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41

James Rowland Angell

Credited with defining the primary tenets of functionalism in his presidential address to the APA

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42

Who was the Pioneer of educational psychology?

Edward Thorndike

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43

Gestalt Psychology

Focuses on understanding how people perceived a unified whole out of the many chaotic individual elements and sensations

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44

Behaviorism

An approach to psychology that suggests observable behaviour should be the only topic of study; ignoring conscious experiments

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45

What grew with introspection

Skepticism

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46

What became the dominant approach to psychology?

Behaviorism

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47

Who was the lead thinker in behavioural psychology?

B.F Skinner

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48

What are CT Scans and when were the founded

Computerized tomography

What does it do: Uses x-rays that pass though the body and can gernate images of “slices” of the body

Pros: Fast, cheap non-invasive

Cons: Radiation exposure

Ex. Detect changes in structure due to disease

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49

Who was at the front of the conception and treatment of mental illness?

Sigmund Freud

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50

Where did Freud believe mental illness came from?

The unconscious mind

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51

Psychoanalysis

A form of psychotherapy seeking to help clients gain more insight into their unconscious thoughts, behaviours and revilations

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52

What was Freud’s solution to solving mental health issues?

Analyze the unconscious mind to bring those feelings and thoughts to consciousness (ex. speech errors, patient, fantasies, free association, dream analysis)

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53

Humanistic Psychology

An approach that emphasizes the ability of humans to make their own choices and realize their own potential

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54

Which two psychologists unified under humanistic psychologist?

Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow

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55

What is person centered therapy called?

Person-centered therapy is also known as client-centered therapy or Rogerian therapy.

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56

Who created positive psychology?

Martin Seligman

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57

What does positive psychology study?

Studies specific virtues of the human experiences (ex. happiness, trust, charity, gratitude)

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58

What is the historical order of the studies of psychology?

Structuralism, Functionalism, Behavioralism, Cognitive Revolution

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59

What is the fundamental disagreement between psychoanalysts and humanists?

The capacity for free will and change

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60

Eclectic Approach

Uses different therapeutic based on their effectiveness for current situation

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61

Levels of explanations

Acknowledgment that different explanations for a phenomenon can compliment one another

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62

Ultimate explanations

Seeks to describe the reason why a trait, behaviour or mental process exists by appealing to its role in the process of evolution

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63

Proximate explanations

Seeks to describe immediate causes of a trait behaviour or mental process

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64

Functional explanations

Type of proximate explanation that seeks to identify a specific problem to the cause, of a trait, behaviour or mental process

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65

Process Oriented explanations

Type of proximate explanation that focuses on how a specific retinal or physical directly explains a trait or behaviour

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66

Evolutionary Psychology

A study of psychology from an evolutionary perspective, it proposes that many process have developed in response to natural selection to solve adaptive problems

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67

Culture

Shared set of beliefs, attitudes, behaviours, customs, belonging to a specific group or community

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68

Feminist Psychology

Approach to psychology that is critical of cultural influences on gender and gender differences in behaviour

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69

Intersectional approach

An approach that emphasizes examining how multiple social identities intersect at the level of the individual person to alter their experiences

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70

Rationalism

the belief or theory that reason is the key source of knowledge

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71

Hermann Ebbinghaus

  • German psychologist

  • Pioneered work on memory and learning

  • Conducted experiments on himself

  • Studied process of memorization and forgetting

  • Findings laid foundation for experimental psychology

  • Discovered "forgetting curve"

  • Introduced concept of "spacing effect"

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72

Aristotle used what theory to reason that human thoughts, perceptions and emotions were?

Rationalism

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73

Data

Facts or information collected, examined and considered in the decision-making process

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74

Scientific Theories

Rational explanations to predict and describe futre behaviour

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75

Scientific Method

a six-step method of acquiring knowledge and methodologically answering questions

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76

What are the 6 steps of the scientific method?

  1. Identify the problem

  2. Gather information

  3. Generate a hypothesis

  4. Design and conduct experiments

  5. Analyze data and formulate conclusions

  6. Restart the process

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77

Replication

to redo a study using the same methods but different subjects and investigators

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78

Descriptive Methods

any means to capture, record or otherwise describe a group. These methods are concerned with identifying “what is” rather than “why it is”

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79

What are 4 popular descriptive methods?

Naturalistic observation, participant observation, case studies and surveys

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80

Naturalistic Observation

observation of behaviour as it happens without manipulating or controlling the subject’ natural environment

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81

What is the benefit of naturalistic observation?

Helps us generate new ideas about an observed phenomenon

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82

Field experiments

an experiment that takes place in a real-world setting in which a researcher manipulates and controls the conditions of the behaviours under observation

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83

Operational definition

how a researcher decides to measure a variable

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84

Variable

something that varies in the context of a research study

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85

Reactivity

a change in a person or animal’s behaviour that is the result of being observed by others (aka the Hawthorne effect)

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86

Interrater reliability

the extent to which two or more observers (raters) agree with each other about their observations. It is usually assessed as a correlation

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87

Participant observation

a research method in which a research becomes part of the group under investigation

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88

Case Study

an in-depth analysis of a unique circumstance or individual

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89

Ablation

a medical procedure to remove or otherwise destroy tissue

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90

Hippocampus

a part of the cerebral cortex known to play a role in the transference of certain memories into long-term memory stores

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91

Entorhinal cortex

a part of the cerebral cortex found on the ventral part of the temporal lobes and known to play a role in behaviour and memory

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92

What are the 3 types of memories

Episodic, sematic, procedural

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93

Surveys

a method using questions to collect information on how people think or act. They give correlations at best

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94

Population

all the members of a group

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95

Sample

a portion of the population

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96

Sampling error

a sample that deviates from a true representation of a population

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97

Bias

an unfair or unequal representation of a population of people or things that results from flawed sampling strategies (intentional or not)

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98

Wording effects

the influence of language or working on people’s response to survey questions

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99

Response bias

the tendency for people to answer the questions the way they feel they are expected to answer or in systematic ways that are otherwise inaccurate

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100

Acquiescent response bias

the tendency for participants to agree or respond “yes” to all questions regardless of their actual opinions

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