Lecture Exam 4

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Cambarian explosion

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Cambarian explosion

535-525 MYA -All phyla formed -New predator-prey relationships -Adaptive Radiation & Diversification

Animals- Muscles, nerves, tissues, absorptive nutrition by ingestion

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Cephalization

the concentration of nerve tissue and sensory organs at the anterior end of an organism

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origin of mammals

about 200 million years ago

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The last common ancestor of all animals was probably a

flagellated protist

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metamorphosis

change of form during embryonic development

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Clade Ecdysozoa

Phylum Nematoda Phylum Arthropoda

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Clade Lophotrochozoa

share the presence of a trochophore larva or a feeding structure called a lophophore -Platyhelminthes, Rotifera, Mollusca, Annelida

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Clade Eumetazoa

animals with true tissues

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Clade Parazoa

Phylum Porifera -> Sponges

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Clade Radiata

Phylum Cnidaria and Phylum Ctenophora -Radial Symmetry

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Clade Bilateria

contains Lophotrochozoa, Ecdysozoa, and Deuterostomia -Bilaterally symmetrical

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Clade Deuterostomia

echinoderms and chordates -Triploblastic

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Deuterostomes

Animals in which the blastopore becomes the anus during early embryonic development

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Protostome

an animal whose mouth is formed from the blastopore -Determinate And Spiral cleavage

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protostomates

mouth forms from blastopore. Determinate Cleavage -Phylum Annelidia -Phylum Mollusca -Phylum Platyhelminthes -Phylum Arthropoda

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Blastula

The hollow ball of cells marking the end stage of cleavage during early embryonic development

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blastopore

The opening of the archenteron in the gastrula that develops into the mouth in protostomes and the anus in deuterostomes

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Chordate Features

Dorsal, hollow nerve cord Notochord Pharyngeal slits Muscular Postanal tail Segmented Muscles

Deuterostomate, bilateral, triploblastic

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Cleavage (embryology)

-series of rapid mitotic divisions in early embryonic development -increasing ratio of nuclear to cytoplasmic material -increases surface-to-volume ratio of each cell, improving gas and nutrient exchange

-Deutro vs proto

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Gastrulation

In animal development, a series of cell and tissue movements in which the blastula-stage embryo folds inward, producing a three-layered embryo, the gastrula.

-Can tell Triplo vs Diplo

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Subphylum Cephalochordata

lancelets (amphioxus)-oldest chordates -Suspension feeders -Pharyngeal slits for water to go in/exit -cilia on outside -Diatoms and dinoflagellates inside

**Features in adults AND larvae

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Ecdysis

periodic shedding of the cuticle in arthropods or the outer skin in reptiles

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Subphylum Urochordata

tunicates -> Chordate features ONLY in larvae -Adults are IMMOBILE and lose chordate features (Derived traits -> ancestors=chordates) -Only have pharyngeal slits

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Unikonta

amoebozoans and opisthokonts

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Subphylum Vertebrata

Vertebrates; cephalized chordates a. A vertebral column b. Closed circulatory system c. Neural crest -> Infolded ectoderm d. Bones e. Brain f. Cranium (skull)

**2 sets of hox genes

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Opisthokonta

the eukaryotic supergroup that contains the fungi, animals, and choanoflagellates

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Subphylum Cyclostomata (Circle Mouth)

Class Mixini and Petromyzontida -Jawless -Simple Vertebrates

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Clade Metazoa

all animals

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Class Mixini

hagfish (Not fish) -Jawless Craniates -Marine scavengers -skull, simple vertebra -Cartilaginous-> NO COLLAGEN -Make slime for protection

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Class Petromyzontida

Lampreys -Cartilaginous-> NO COLLAGEN -Jawless, vertebra-like extensions on notochord -Parasites; eat blood -> larvae suspension feed

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Subphylum Gnathostomes (Jaw Mouth)

-JAWS -> Predators -Additional hox gene cluster -Mineralized endoskeleton -Lateral line system -> better senses and bigger brain -Tetrapods -> legs and arms

**Fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals

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Origin of Jaws

-Skeletal rods supporting pharyngeal slits fuse around the mouth -Other slits become GILLS for respiration -No more suspension feeding

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Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fish)

Sharks And Ray fish & ratfish -true jaws and Cartilage endoskeleton -paired fins -hypertonic to Ocean -Must be constantly swimming

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Superclass Osteichthyes (bony fish)

-Endoskeleton made entirely of hard calcified bone -Operculum= protects gills and allows fish to draw in H2O and breathe -swim bladders= "Lungs" -> controls buoyancy -gills for respiration -Lateral line system -Oviparous

3 Classes: Class Actinopterygii Class Actinistia Class Dipnoi

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Class Actinopterygii (ray-finned fishes)

-Origin Silurian Period 444-419 MYA -Aquatic -Fins supported by long flexible rays -> maneuvering, self defense

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Class Actinistia (lobe-finned fish)

-Rod shaped bones surrounded by thick layer of muscle in pelvic and pectoral fins -3rd surviving group of lobe fins= survived on land -Silurian Period

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Class Dipnoi (lungfish)

-Gills= main organs for gas exchange

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Class Amphibia

Paleozoic- 365 MYA -Flattened head and arms come to sides -Presence of neck -Shell-less eggs -Frog= soft skin -Toad= rough skin

**Gave rise to reptiles and mammals

3 clades: Urodela- Salamanders Anura- Frogs (tail-less) Caecilians (Apoda)- (snakes Legless)

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Missing Link Traits-Amphibians

Juveniles- Gills. Swim tail, Webbed feet, fish like Adults- Lungs, moist skin, H2O to reproduce

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Reptile characteristics

Water proof scales Independent from water -DRY skin, keratinized cells -Lay Amniotic eggs on land -> Pre-fertilized= SHELLS COVER ZYGOTE -Egg Shell: Stores H2O, leathery, waste excretion (NH3-> Uric acid), gas exchange (Air pockets)

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Reptile groups

Synapsids -Therapsids-> give rise to mammals -1 opening in temporal arch

Diapsids -Dinosaurs, crocodiles, snakes, lizards, birds -2 openings in temporal arch

Anapsid -Turtles -NO opening in temporal arch

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Types of teeth in mammals

incisors= shredding canines= ripping and piercing molars= grinding

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mammal characteristics

-Warm blooded -High metabolism -Sweat glands to cool -specialized teeth -hair -Mammary glands -Extended care of young -Learned behavior

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Subclass Prototheria

monotremes (Porcupines) -Warm blooded -Lay eggs -> Young hatch and live outside mom -hair -NO NIPPLES -Milk glands

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Subclass Metatheria (marsupials)

-Live Birth -Temporary placenta -Underdeveloped young -> stay in mom's pouch -Attached to nipple -> feed off nipple for milk

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Subclass Eutheria (placental mammals)

-Live birth -Fully developed child after birth -Young held inside past egg feed development -Feed by umbilical cord attached to placenta -Long-term placenta -Feed off breast for milk-> NOT physically attached to nipple

**Convergent evolution with Marsupials -> look similar

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Tetrapods

vertebrate animals having four feet, legs or leglike appendages -digits on feet and arms -Neck= sep movement of head -Fusion of pelvic girdle and backbone -Ears-> detect airborne sounds -Absence of gills

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Origins of flight

Arose 4 times

  1. Pterosaurs -> Flying reptiles

  2. Bats

  3. Birds

  4. Insects

2 theories: Tree Down Theory Ground Up Theory

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Bird (aves) characteristics

-feathers -> Flight -forelimbs have become wings -lay eggs with hard shells -4 chambers in heart -Warm blooded high metabolism -Lungs and air sacs= one way flow -Hollow bones -Parental care and social behavior -One ovary -NO TEETH OR URINARY BLADDER

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Primates New Features

-Origins to 65 MYA -Insect eating nocturnal mammals -Derived Trait-> Life in trees -grasping hands and feet -Fully opposable separate big thumb -Fingerprints -Larger brain -Short jaws -Hand to eye coordination -Flat nails, no claws -Long parental care -Learned Behavior -Single births ANY time of yr

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Primate Groups

prosimians -Lemurs and Tarsiers -> more related to OG primates

anthropoids -Monkeys and Hominoids -> Split from Prosimians 45 MYA

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New World Monkeys

All species are arboreal -Nostrils open to the side -Many have prehensile tails. -Squirrel and Capuchin monkeys

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Old World Monkeys

Split from New World Monkeys 35 MYA Include arboreal and terrestrial species -Lack prehensile tails -Nostrils open downward -Rhesus Monkeys, baboons, macaques

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Hominoids

apes and humans Split from Monkeys 20-25 MYA -More flexible/learned behaviors -NO PREHENSILE TAILS -Larger brain to body ratio / larger size -Social Behavior

Orangutans and Gibbons -> Primarily Arboreal Gorillas, Chimps, Us -> Primarily Terrestrial

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Hominins

-Humans and our direct ancestors since split from Chimps 6-8 MYA

Major Groups: Australopithecus Paranthropus Homos -> some co-existed

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Hominin Evolution/Characteristics

Driven by Life on LAND -bipedalism -Smaller Jaw with SPECIALIZED teeth -> Omnivorous diet -Pronounced chin -Less Sexual Dimorphism -> no real harem/dominant male -Tool use -Language -Social behavior -Walking Upright -expanded brain -Decreased sense in smell nut increased vision and muscle coordination -Eyes are larger and directed forward -Mosaic Evolution-> Not all traits happened at same time

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mosaic evolution

a phenotypic pattern that shows how different traits of an organism, responding to different selection pressures, may evolve at different rates

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Chromosome anomaly

Other extant Hominids -> 2n=48 -2 Ape chromosomes fuse -> become humans with 2n=46

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Paedogenesis

The early development of sexual maturity in an adolescent -> Larger cerebrum in hominins

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Sahelanthropus tchadensis

The earliest pre-australopithecine species found in central Africa -OLDEST-> 6-7 MYA (discovered 2002)

-Reduced Canine teeth -Flatter Faces -More Upright & Bipedal other hominids

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Orrorin tugenensis

-6.1 MYA-5.8 MYA (Discovered 2000) -Evergreen forest -> Not in open grassland -Oldest Bipedal Fossil Evidence

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Ardipithecus ramidus

4.4 MYA -"Ardi"-> most complete skeleton found -wooded environment-> contradicts open Savannah theory for origins of bipedalism -small brain -walked upright -big toe separated from other toes

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Australopithecus

the earliest humanlike creature 3-4 MYA -Fully upright walking -Human-like teeth and hands

  • 1/3 of modern human skull size -Lasted over 1 MY in South and East Africa

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Homo Naled

2.5-3 MYA (Not sure) (found 2012) -Base of Homo Genus -Fully Bipedal -Fine Hand/Motor skills

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Homo Habilis

1.6-2.5 MYA -Walked upright for 2 MY -USED Brains -Fashioned STONE TOOLS -Co-existed with Australopithecus for 1 MY

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Homo ergaster

1.6-1.9 MYA -Less sexual dimorphism and more monogamy -larger brains -Slender legs -> Long distance walking -> Migrations -Smaller teeth= Prepared/cooked food -Smaller fingers= no more climbing trees -More advanced tools and more habitats

Intermediate btwn Habilis and Erectus

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Homo erectus

300,000 YA- 1.8 MYA First to Migrate OUT to Europe and Asia -Larger populations -More advanced hunting -> Oldest evidence of use of fire -Java Man and Pecking Man

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Homo heidelbergensis

A transitional species between Homo erectus and Homo sapiens -Descended from H. ergaster in Africa and spread out

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Europe in ICE AGE: 3 populations LOSE CONTACT and speciate:

Europe: Neanderthals Asia: Denisovans Africa: Homo Sapiens (us)

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Homo neanderthalensis

40,000-200,000 YA -Buried dead -Hunting tools from stone and wood -Carnivorous -Larger brain size than us (Maybe)

**Interbred With H. sapiens -> 20% European genome is Neanderthal (Except Y chromosome 100% Sapien)

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Denisovans

41,000 YA -Formed from H. heidelbergensis -More closely related to Neanderthals than us -Not much info -> only have small DNA fragments -Fossils in Spain -> May have interbred with Neanderthals

**Papua New Guinea ppl have Denisovan DNA -May have been around until 60,000-110,000 YA

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Ethology

The scientific study of how animals behave, particularly in natural environments.

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behavior

what and how animals do things

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Reductionism

Single out/isolate variable you are testing

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causes of behavior

Ultimate Causation: Ecological/Evolutionary reason -> How to maximize fitness

Proximate Causation: Trigger/signal causes behavior

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Innate Behavior

Genetically determined behavior -> Instinct

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fixed action pattern

A sequence of unlearned acts that is essentially unchangeable and, once initiated, usually carried to completion.

-Perform behaviors without having seen them performed -> Don't think abt it, instinctive -Triggered by sign/stimulus

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learned behavior

a behavior that has been learned/modified from experience or observation

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Learning

The modification of behavior based on specific experiences.

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Maturation

biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior, relatively uninfluenced by experience -Period of learning

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Habituation

A loss of responsiveness to stimuli that convey little or no information. -Temporary-> can be reversed

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Imprinting

the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life -PERMANENT

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classical conditioning

a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events -Link background stimulus with reward or harm

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operant conditioning

Learning based on the consequences of responding -Trial and Error learning -Can either reinforce or diminish behavior based on reward or harm

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Cognition

all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating

-Can make judgement about environment -> perceive, store and process info = senses

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insight learning

The process of learning how to solve a problem or do something new by applying what is already known

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observational learning

learning by observing from parents and other members of species -Mammals and vertebrates -Traditions passed down to generations

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Play

Practicing behaviors and exercise

ex. Tag exercises behavior of hunting

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social learning

Learning through observing others. -Forms roots of culture

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altruistic behavior

self-sacrificing behavior that benefits another individual or individuals

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social behavior

All interactions taking place between members of the same species -Rituals to warn, appease, court, defense

Dominance in Species- Alpha: Controls pack and resources and access to it Beta....Omega (Lowest)

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Modes of Communication

Visual Verbal Auditory Chemicals- Pheromones (insects, mammals, reptiles)

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agonistic behavior

Competition that determines who wins a prize, such as food, mates, or Alpha dominance.

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ritual

a ceremonial act; a customary procedure; a symbolic activity

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monogamy

marriage with one mate at a time -> No sexual Dimorphism

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Polygyny

One male, several females. -Strong sexual dimorphism

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Polyandry

One female, several males. -Strong sexual dimorphism

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Tinbergen

study of red stickleback aggression (FAP)with red underbelly

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99

Von Frisch

studied honeybee communication

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Konrad Lorenz

researcher who focused on critical attachment periods in baby birds, a concept he called imprinting

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