Hesi Exam Questions

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Which of the following means the same thing as anterior?

  • Superior

  • Inferior

  • Ventral

  • Caudal

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1

Which of the following means the same thing as anterior?

  • Superior

  • Inferior

  • Ventral

  • Caudal

Ventral

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2

Which of the following terms refers to  “behind or toward the back”?

  • Anterior

  • Superior

  • Ventral

  • Dorsal

Dorsal

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3

Which of the following suggests a location towards the head?

  • Superior

  • Inferior

  • Posterior

  • Caudal

Superior

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4

Which of the following refers to the term “distal”?

  • Farther from the trunk or point of attachment

  • Closer to the trunk or point of attachment

  • Away from the midline

  • Towards the midline

Farther from the trunk or point of attachment

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5

Which of the following best describes the location of the chest?

  • Inferior to the vertebral column

  • Posterior to the vertebral column

  • Superior to the vertebral column

  • Anterior to the vertebral column

Anterior to the vertebral column

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6

Which plane divides the body into left and right sides?

  • Transverse

  • Sagittal

  • Frontal

  • Coronal

Sagittal

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7

Which parts are produced when the body is cut through the transverse plane?

  • Ventral and dorsal

  • Superior and inferior

  • Left and right

  • Anterior and posterior

Superior and inferior

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8

Which of the following is incorrect regarding the ‘anatomical position’?

  • The person is standing upright with the feet planted flat, parallel, and facing forward

  • The person is standing upright, facing the observer with the arms slightly away from the body and palms facing forward

  • The person is standing upright with the upper limbs at the sides, and thumbs pointing away from the body

  • The person is standing upright, gazing at the feet which are planted flat, parallel, and facing forward

  • The person is standing upright, gazing at the feet which are planted flat, parallel, and facing forward

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9

Which of the following is found in the head region?

  • Pancreas

  • Pituitary gland

  • Prostate

  • Adrenal gland

Pituitary gland

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10

Which of the following is not found in the neck?

  • Thyroid gland

  • Hypothalamus

  • Larynx

  • Trachea

Hypothalamus

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11

In which region can the ‘popliteal fossa’ be found?

  • Upper extremities

  • Lower extremities

  • Head region

  • Neck region

Lower extremities

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12

Which cavity contains the ovaries?

  • Pelvic cavity

  • Thoracic cavity

  • Dorsal cavity

  • Abdominal cavity

Pelvic cavity

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13

Which of the following is not present in the abdominal cavity?

  • Liver

  • Spleen

  • Stomach

  • Rectum

Rectum

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14

Which of the following is present in the thoracic cavity?

  • Kidneys

  • Cerebellum

  • Esophagus

  • Gallbladder

Esophagus

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15

The lungs are ______ to the diaphragm.

  • Proximal

  • Inferior

  • Anterior

  • Superior

Superior

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16

The tibia is  _______ to the femur.

  • Distal

  • Medial

  • Lateral

  • Proximal

Distal

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17

Which of the following is the most proximal bone of the upper limb?

  • Radius

  • Humerus

  • Ulna

  • Carpus

Humerus

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18

The kidneys lie _____ to the spine.

  • Medial

  • Lateral

  • Inferior

  • Anterior

Lateral

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19

Which of the following is the most medial?

  • Right adrenal gland

  • Lungs

  • Heart

  • Spleen

Heart

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20

Which of the following lies anterior to the rib cage

  • Small intestine

  • Lungs

  • Stomach

  • Breast

Breast

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21

The study of the microscopic structure of tissues is called _________.

  • Physiology

  • Gross anatomy

  • Histology

  • Biology

Histology

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22

Which of the following represents the correct order of organization from the simplest to the most complex?

  • Cell-system-tissue-organ-organism

  • Cell-organ-tissue-system-organism

  • Cell-tissue-organ-system-organism

  • Cell-tissue-system-organ-organism

Cell-tissue-organ-system-organism

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23

A(n)________ is a group of tissues working together to perform a similar function.

  • System

  • Cell

  • Organism

  • Organ

Organ

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24

Which of the following organelles is responsible for lipid synthesis?

  • Secretory vesicles

  • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

  • Golgi apparatus

  • Lysosomes

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (Smooth ER)

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25

Ribosomes are synthesized in the ______.

  • Rough endoplasmic reticulum

  • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

  • Nucleus

  • Nucleolus

Nucleolus

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26

Mitochondria is to energy production as ribosome is to __________.

  • Protein packaging

  • Lipid synthesis

  • Protein storage

  • Protein synthesis

Protein synthesis

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27

What is the function of the lysosome?

  • Digestion of cellular debris

  • Energy production

  • Protein transportation

  • Structural support

Digestion of cellular debris

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28

Which kind of tissue covers the body and lines cavities?

  • Connective

  • Muscle

  • Epithelial

  • Nervous

Epithelial

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29

Which tissue has multinucleated striated cylindrical fibers and moves the body under voluntary control?

  • Compact bone

  • Skeletal muscle

  • Cancellous bone

  • Smooth muscle

Skeletal muscle

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30

Which of the following is not a connective tissue?

  • Blood

  • Cartilage

  • Bone

  • Neuroglia

Neuroglia

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31

Which of the following is not a function of epithelial tissue?

  • Protection

  • Absorption

  • Support

  • Secretion

Support

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32

Which is the most abundant nervous tissue?

  • Neuroglia

  • Myelin

  • Dendrites

  • Neurons

Neuroglia

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33

Which of the following describes the function of excitable nervous tissue?

  • It responds to stimulus by reinforcing the structures it supports.

  • It responds to stimulus by replicating itself.

  • It responds to stimulus by shortening its length.

  • It responds to stimulus by initiating an impulse.

It responds to stimulus by initiating an impulse.

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34

Which of the following is not associated with muscle tissue?

  • Binding structures together

  • Heat production

  • Maintaining posture

  • Providing the ability for voluntary movement

Binding structures togethe

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35

Which tissue stores nutrients?

  • Muscle tissue

  • Nervous tissue

  • Epithelial tissue

  • Connective tissue

Muscle tissue

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36

Protection is the primary function of __________epithelium.

  • Simple columnar

  • Stratified squamous

  • Simple cuboidal

  • Simple squamous

Stratified squamous

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37

Under a microscope, a sample shows branched, striated fibers that have a single nucleus. The fibers are joined at intercalated discs. What was the most likely source of this tissue?

  • Brain

  • Stomach

  • Upper limb

  • Heart

Heart

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38

A tissue sample showed a single layer of tightly packed flattened cells on a basement membrane. What kind of tissue is this?

  • Simple cuboidal

  • Simple squamous

  • Simple columnar

  • Stratified columnar

Simple squamous

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39

Which tissue has chondrocytes in nests with surrounding solid matrix?

  • Compact bone

  • Cancellous bone

  • Fibrocartilage

  • Hyaline cartilage

Hyaline cartilage

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40

Which cell is rectangular with a height greater than its width and nucleus located near its basal layer?

  • Cuboidal cell

  • Columnar cell

  • Squamous cell

  • Transitional cell

Columnar cell

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41

Epidermis

Protecting the body from the outside as the outermost layer, keeping your skin hydrated, producing new skin cells, and determining your skin color

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42

Dermis

The middle layer of skin, contains collagen, blood vessels, glands, hair follicles, and nerve endings support and protect the skin and deeper layers, assist in thermoregulation, and aid in sensation.

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43

Hypodermis (subcutaneous)

The innermost layer of skin, storing energy, connecting the dermis layer of your skin to your muscles and bones, insulating your body, and protecting your body from harm.

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44

Dermal papillae

Regulate hair growth, protrusions of dermal connective tissue into the epidermal layer.

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45

Melanocytes

produce and distribute melanin, which is a skin pigment.

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46

Stratum corneum

First line of defense against the environment.

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47

Stratum lucidum

Thin somewhat translucent layer of cells lying superficial to the stratum granulosum and under the stratum corneum, found especially in thickened parts of the epidermis (as of the palms or the soles of the feet)

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48

Stratum granulosum

Accumulate dense basophilic keratohyalin granules that contain lipids helping to form a waterproof barrier which prevents fluid loss from the body

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49

Stratum spinosum

This layer mostly consists of keratinocytes held together by sticky proteins called desmosomes, helping make your skin flexible and strong

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50

Stratum basale

Deepest of the five layers of the epidermis, contains the only layer where the proliferation of skin cells can occur and attaches epidermis to the dermis

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51

Dermal papillae

Protrusions of dermal connective tissue into the epidermal layer.

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52

Sebaceous glands-

Microscopic exocrine gland in the skin that opens into a hair follicle to secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum

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53

Eccrine

Sweat glands that are the most numerous and widely distributed over the body

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54

Sudiferous (sweat glands)

Found in the dermis, sweat duct that transports the secretion to the surface of the epidermis (eccrine glands) or into a hair follicle (apocrine glands).

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55

Which of the following is not a function of the integumentary system?

  • Thermoregulation

  • Synthesis

  • Blood sugar regulation

  • Excretion

Blood sugar regulation

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56

Which of the following statements about the skin is correct?

  • The epidermis is deep and has 5 layers

  • The epidermis is superficial and has 2 layers

  • The dermis is deep and has 2 layers

  • The dermis is superficial and has 5 layers

The dermis is deep and has 2 layers

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57

Which of the following is not found in the epidermis?

  • Blood vessels

  • Keratinocyte

  • Melanocyte

  • Langerhan cells

Blood vessels

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58

The layer of skin that contains a high number of blood vessels, as well as elastic and collagen fibers is the ____________.

  • Stratum germinativum

  • Dermis

  • Hypodermis

  • Epidermis

Dermis

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59

Which of the following is not found in the dermis?

  • Sensory receptors

  • Nerves

  • Langerhan cells

  • Sebaceous gland

Langerhan cells

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60

Which of the following correctly describes the functions of the epidermis?

  • Physical barrier, biological barrier and waterproofing

  • Sweat production, sebum production, and sensation

  • Sensation, waterproofing and sebum production

  • Physical barrier, waterproofing, and sweat production

Physical barrier, biological barrier and waterproofing

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61

Which of the following represents the correct order of the layers of the epidermis from the deepest to the most superficial layer?

  • Stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum

  • Stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum, stratum germinativum

  • Stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum germinativum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale

  • Stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum corneum

Stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum germinativum, stratum spinosum, stratum basale

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62

Which layer of the epidermis contains flattened polygonal cells?

  • Stratum spinosum

  • Stratum granulosum

  • Stratum corneum

  • Stratum basale

Stratum granulosum

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63

Which part of the skin contains melanocytes?

  • Stratum germinativum

  • Stratum corneum

  • Stratum lucidum

  • Stratum granulosum

Stratum germinativum

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64

The dark pigment which protects us from UV rays is___________.

  • Melanin

  • Melanocyte

  • Hemoglobin

  • Carotene

Melanin

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65

What connects the skin to the superficial muscles?

  • Ligament

  • Tendon

  • Dermis

  • Hypodermis

Hypodermis

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66

Which of the following statements concerning eccrine sweat glands is incorrect?

  • They are responsible for thermoregulation

  • They are the most common type of sweat gland

  • They are found in auditory canal

  • They produces clear sweat

They are found in auditory canal

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67

Apocrine sweat glands____________.

  • open up to the surface of the skin

  • are found in the back, axilla, and perianal area

  • regulate body temperature

  • become active during puberty

become active during puberty

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68

What is the function of the ceruminous gland?

  • Thermoregulation

  • To lubricate the inner ear

  • body odor

  • To protect the outer ear

To protect the outer ear

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69

Sebaceous glands are absent in the __________.

  • Face

  • Groin

  • Palms

  • Scalp

Palms

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70

Fingernails are rich in a protein called ________.

  • Melanin

  • Lunula

  • Cuticle

  • Keratin

Keratin

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71

A doctor examining whether a mole has transformed into a melanoma checks for the following:

  • symmetry, base, color, diameter and evolution

  • Asymmetry, base, crusting, diameter, and evolution

  • Asymmetry, border, crusting, diameter, and evolution

  • Asymmetry, border, color, diameter and evolution

  • Asymmetry, border, color, diameter and evolution (ABCDE)

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72

People with albinism are prone to skin cancer because ___________.

  • they lack melanin

  • they lack stratum corneum

  • they lack melanocytes

  • they are fair

they lack melanin

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73

Which part of the body is likely to have a thin layer of stratum corneum?

  • Heels

  • Eyelid

  • Forehead

  • Knees

Eyelid

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74

Individuals who stay indoors may suffer deficiency of vitamin ___________.

  • K

  • D

  • A

  • B

D

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75

Periosteum

Part of the outer double layered structure on the outside of bones that grow, repair and remodel bone as well.

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76

Endosteum

Lining the inside of the bone adjacent to the medullary cavity is a

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77

Osteocytes

The longest living bone cell, making up 90–95% of cells in bone tissue

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78

Osteoclasts

The cells that degrade bone to initiate normal bone remodeling and mediate bone loss in pathologic conditions by increasing their resorptive activity.

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79

Osteoblasts

cells that synthesize bone matrix and coordinate the mineralization of the skeleton.

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80

Diaphysis

is the hollow, tubular shaft that runs between the proximal and distal ends of the bone.

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81

Epiphysis

The area of the long bone where bone growth takes place.

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82

How many bones are in the human adult body

206

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83

Suture

fibrous joint that holds the bones of the skull together

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84

Tubercle

a rounded bump which serve as sites for muscle and ligament attachments

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85

Tuberosity

a rounded bump that has a more gradual slope

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86

Styloid Process

a pointy process.

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87

Trochanter

a very large bump found on the femur bones

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88

Condyle

a large rounded process

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89

Foramen

a hole in bones for arteries, veins and nerves

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90

Sinus

a hollow cavity within a bone

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91

Lordosis

spinal curve with the convexity of the curve anterior

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92

kyphosis

spinal curve with the convexity of the curve anterior

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93

Hyperlordosis

an increased lordotic curve

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94

Hyperkyphosis

an increased kyphotic curve

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95

Which of the following is a function of the skeletal system?

  • Fluid balance

  • Protection

  • Excretion

  • Gas exchange

Protection

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96

Which of the following includes some of the functions of the skeletal system?

  • Support, Movement, Protection, Muscle attachment, Heat generation

  • Support, Movement, Protection, Thermoregulation, Haematopoiesis,

  • Support, Movement, Haematopoiesis, Mineral storage, Fat storage

  • Support, Movement, Haematopoiesis, Mineral storage, Blood pressure regulation

Support, Movement, Haematopoiesis, Mineral storage, Fat storage

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97

Which of the following structure is correctly matched to its description?

  • Joint – Point of attachment for muscles

  • Ligament – Connective tissue which attaches a muscle to a bone

  • Tendon – Connective tissue which attaches a muscle to a ligament

  • Cartilage – Connective tissue found between bones in a joint

Cartilage – Connective tissue found between bones in a joint

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98

______________ is a connective tissue that joins two bones.

  • Ligament

  • Tendon

  • Cartilage

  • Joint

Ligament

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99

Which type of bone has a diaphysis and two epiphyses?

  • Irregular bone

  • Flat bone

  • Short bone

  • Long bone

Long bone

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100

Bones embedded within tendons are called?

  • Short bone

  • Sesamoid bone

  • Flat bone

  • Irregular bone

Sesamoid bone

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