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133 Terms

1

% of students living in immigrant families

25%

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2

% of students living in poverty

22%

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3

% of students with developmental disability

12% (1/6)

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4

% of students with divorced or separated parents

20%

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5

% of white and black teachers

92% white 7% black

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6

Teacher self-efficacy

Belief in your own abilities to reach students and help them learn

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7

Benefits of high teacher self-efficacy

  • leads to persistence with difficult students

  • leads to lower rate of teacher burnout

  • improves with school support for teachers

  • increases as teacher succeeds with students

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8

high teacher self-efficacy is a _______ of student achievement

predictor

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9

sense of efficacy may ___ after the first year as a teacher

decline

  • because support from student teaching is gone

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10

No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)

  • all students grades 3-8 take annual standardized achievement tests in reading and math

  • must be tested in science once in each grade span (elementary, middle, and high school)

  • schools are judged based off these scores

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Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP)

NCLB term for the minimum level of improvement that school districts and schools must achieve each year

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12

NCLB required that all students reach proficiency by ____

2013-2014 school year

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13

Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA)

  • no proficiency deadline date

  • more control to the states to set standards and develop goals

  • penalties no longer central to the law

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Major changes in ESSA

  1. schools only considered failing if they are at the bottom 5% of test scores, graduate less than 2/3 of students, or subgroups consistently underperform

  2. no pressure to adopt common core standards

  3. not penalized for subgroups underperforming unless results are consistent

  4. local districts decide when to test and how they test.

  5. states must fund "equitable services" for children in private and religious schools if students are eligible for special services

  6. emphasized increased access to preschool by including new funding for early childhood education (not actually too dramatic for schools)

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15

Beginning Teachers...

  • may experience reality shock

  • only partially prepared for full responsibilities of teaching

  • tend to focus on discipline motivating students, accommodating differences

  • may adapt with experience, support, and hard work

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Beginning educational psychology

Plato and Aristotle

  • roles of teachers, teaching methods, nature of learning

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17

Founder of educational psychology

William James

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18

William James

  • Talks to Teachers about Psychology

  • founder of educational psychology

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19

Talks to Teachers about Psychology

  • series of lectures given to teachers around the country

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20

Founder of the American Psychological Association

G. Stanley Hall

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G. Stanley Hall

  • Dissertation about children's understanding of the world

  • encouraged teachers to make detailed observations about their students

  • Student of William James

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22

John Dewey

  • Hall's student

  • founded the laboratory school at the university of chicago

  • father of the progressive education movement

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23

E.L. Thorndike

  • William James' student

  • wrote first educational psychology text in 1903

  • founded the Journal of Educational Psychology in 1910

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24

What do educational psychologists study?

  • examine what happens when someone teaches something to someone else in some setting.

  • study child and adolescent development, learning and motivation

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Development

Orderly, adaptive changes in humans over time

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Physical Development

Changes in body structure and function

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Personal Development

Change sin personality as one grows

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Social Development

Changes in ways of relating to others

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Cognitive Development

Gradual orderly changes by which mental processes become more complex, sophisticated

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Maturation

Genetically programmed, naturally occurring changes over time

  • rarely effected by environment, except in cases of malnutrition or severe illness

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Not Considered Development

Brief changes caused by illness or other factor

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Nature vs Nurture

  • have become of less interest to psychologist since both are important in development

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Continuity vs. Discontinuity

What is the shape of development? Does development smoothly progress or shift abruptly?

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Discontinuous

  • Walking up stairs

  • level for a period, then you ascend to the next step all at once

  • qualitative

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Continuous

  • walking up a ramp

  • Progress is steady

  • quantitative

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Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development

  • discontinuous cognitive development

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Sensitive Periods

  • instead of critical periods

  • windows of opportunity when a person is especially responsive to certain experiences

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General Principles of Development

  • People develop at different rates

  • Development is relatively orderly

  • Development takes place gradually

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39

CAT Scan

  • 3D image of brain

  • locate and study tumors

  • cannot use too often because of radiation exposure, not detailed

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40

PET Scan

  • Tracks brain activity under different conditions

  • studies how the brain works and which areas are more involved in different activities

  • tells more about where the activity takes place instead of when

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EEG

  • measures electrical patterns in brain

  • studies sleep disorders, epilepsy, language

  • does not show specifics

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fMRI

  • Shows movement of blood flow

  • studies brain processes and structures related to perception emotion, thinking, and action

  • has largely replaced PET scans, but has brief lag between changes in brain activity

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NIR-OT

  • uses infrared light through scalp to assess brain activity

  • studies brain processes and changes during particular activities and interactions

  • can only detect a few centimeters of brain

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44

Neurogenesis

the formation of new neurons

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Experience-Expectant

  • await and expect stimulation

  • Oversee general development in brain's large areas

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Experience-Dependent

  • form in response to experiences

  • stimulating environments likely improve development

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Order of Maturation in Brain

  1. areas of physical movement

  2. areas of vision and hearing

  3. frontal lobe

  4. emotions/judgment

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Piaget's Four Factors that Influence Changes in Thinking

  1. Biological Maturation

  2. Activity

  3. Social Experiences

  4. Equilibration

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Social Transmission

Learning from others

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2 Invariant Functions (basic tendencies)

  1. Organization

  2. Adaptation

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Organization

Tendency to arrange information into categories schemes: categories of perceptions, experiences

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Adaptation

Tendency to adapt to environment

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53

Assimilation

Fit new information into existing schemes

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Accommodation

Alter schemes or create new ones

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Equilibration

applying schemes to incoming information (how thinking changes)

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Disequilibrium

New information does not fit into existing schemes

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____ + _____ = Equilibrium

assimilation + accommodation

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Four stages of cognitive development (Piaget)

  1. sensorimotor

  2. preoperational

  3. concrete operational

  4. formal operational

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Sensorimotor

  • 0-2 years

  • Learning through reflexes, senses, and movement

  • begins to imitate others and remember events

  • shifts to symbolic thinking

  • object permanence

  • Moves from reflexive actions to intentional activity

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Preoperational

  • 2-7 years

  • Develops language, begins to use symbols to represent objects

  • Has difficulty with past and future, thinks in present

  • Can think through operations logically in one direction

  • Does not understand the point of view of another person

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Concrete Operational

  • 7-11 years

  • think logically about concrete (hands-on) problems

  • understands conversation and organizes info into categories

  • Can reverse thinking to undo actions

  • understands past present and future

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Formal Operational

  • Adolescence - adulthood

  • think hypothetically, abstractly, deductively

  • more scientific

  • consider multiple perspectives

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Semiotic Function

ability to work with symbols to represent an object that is not present (preoperational stage)

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Decentering

considering more than one aspect of a situation at a time (children in preoperational stage struggle with this)

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Egocentric

See the world from your own perspective only (preoperational stage)

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Seriation

Making an arrangement of items in order of large to small or vice versa (concrete operational)

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Helping Families Care for Preoperational Children

•Use concrete props, visual aids •Make instructions short, few steps; model processes •Help child see other's viewpoint; imagine how other person feels, how they like to be treated -Set clear rules for sharing; establish value of rules •Provide hands-on practice with skills that help build more complex skills •Provide wide range of experiences -Build foundation for concept learning and language

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68

Helping Families Care for Concrete-Operational Children

•Use concrete props, visual aids-Timelines in history, 3-D models in science, diagrams •Allow to manipulate objects, do hands-on experiments•Use brief, well-organized presentations, readings •Use familiar examples to explain more complex ideas -Make relevant to their lives, their experiences •Allow to classify/group increasingly complex objects/ideas •Present problems that require logical, analytical thinking -Use open-ended questions to stimulate thinking

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Helping Students Use Formal Operations

•Use concrete-operational teaching strategies, materials •Allow to explore many hypothetical questions -Write position papers, debate issues, create utopias •Allow to solve problems and reason scientifically -They design experiments to answer questions -They create logical arguments •Teach broad concepts, not just facts -Make materials/ideas relevant to their lives

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70

Hypothetico-Deductive Reasoning

The ability to think hyopthetically about situations (Formal Operational)

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Adolescent Egocentrism

Do not deny that other people feel differently, but still focus on personal beliefs and thought

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Limitations of Piaget's Theory

  • Stages don't represent inconsistencies in children's thinking

  • Piaget underestimated children's abilities

  • Children's cognitive development CAN be accelerated through effective instruction

  • Overlooked important aspects of cultural and social differences

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73

Executive Functioning

the cognitive abilities and processes that allow humans to plan or inhibit their actions

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Neo-Piagetian Theories

  • Integrate findings about attention, memory, strategy with Piaget's insights about construction of knowledge

  • View cognitive development stages as domain specific

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Robbie Case

  • explained cognitive development by suggesting that children develop in specific domains (numbers, social, story telling)

  • Well known neo-piagetian

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Kurt Fischer

  • connected cognitive development in different domains to research on the brain

  • when learning a new skill, children move from 3 tiers

  1. actions

  2. representations

  3. abstractions (neuroscience)

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Lev Vygotsky

child development; investigated how culture & interpersonal communication guide development; zone of proximal development; play research

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Three Themes in Vygotsky's writings that explain how social processes form learning and thinking

  • social sources of individual thinking

  • the role of cultural tools in learning

  • the zone of proximal development

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Co-Constructed Processes

Higher mental processes that are internalized by the child and are constructed during shared activities between child and other person

  • asking "where was the last place you saw it"?

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Piaget vs. Vygotsky Role of Social Interaction

Piaget - cognitive conflict motivates change, peers are most important interaction Vygotsky - parents and teachers are most important interaction

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Cultural Tools

  • Allow people to communicate, think, solve problems, create knowledge

  • real tools like rulers and computers

  • Psychological tools like numbers and language

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How do cultural tools help?

allow children to transform their thinking by gaining a greater understanding of their own cognitive processes

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83

Language is important for cognitive development because _______

is provides a way to express ideas and ask questions, the categories and concepts for thinking, and the links between the past and future

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Collective Monologue (Piaget)

  • Children's way of talking to themself without any real conversation

  • Indicates child can't perceive other's views

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Socialized Speech (Piaget)

Listening and exchanging ideas

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Private Speech (Vygotsky)

Children's self-talk, which guides their thinking and action; eventually internalized as silent inner speech.

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Piaget vs. Vygotsky: Role of Language

Piaget: Language has a minimal role; cognitive primarily directs language self-talk is just another sign of immaturity Vygotsky: A major role; language plays a powerful role in shaping thought self-talk guides development

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Private speech peaks around age ___ and then decreases

9

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89

Zone of Proximal Development

  • Phase where a child can master a task if given appropriate help and support

  • Area between child's current performance and what they could achieve with guidance

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Private Speech + The Zone

Teacher's verbal prompts/structure provide scaffolding to help child solve problems, complete tasks

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Scaffolding

adult use of verbal prompts and structuring to help a child solve a problem or accomplish a task

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Piaget vs Vygotsky: Role of Learning and Development

Piaget -Development: Active construction of knowledge -Learning: Passive formation of associations; must wait for readiness -Cognitive development precedes learning Vygotsky -Developmental processes: Set in motion by learning -Learning: An active process, a tool in development, does not have to wait for readiness -Other people (social interactions) play significant role in cognitive development

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Piaget Application to Teaching

-Teach how to learn; children construct their own knowledge -Understand and build on children's thinking -Keep disequilibrium just right to encourage growth -Actively engage students in concrete experiences

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Vygotsky Application to Teaching

-Use imitation, instruction, and collaboration -Scaffolding: Support learning with clues, tips -Assisted learning: Strategic help in initial stages -Teach in "magic middle"—zone of proximal development

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Strategies to Provide Scaffolding and Assisted Learning

•Model thought process for students; think out loud •Use organizers, starters (who, what, why, how, what next) •Do part of the problem with students •Give hints, cues •Encourage short-term goals, small steps •Connect new learning to interests, prior learning •Use graphic organizers (timelines, charts, tables, lists) •Simplify tasks, clarify purpose, give clear directions •Teach key vocabulary and provide examples

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96

Big Ideas about Cognitive Development

  1. requires physical AND social stimulation

  2. Involves mental, physical, linguistic activity

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97

Mandated Reporter

a person who is required by law to report maltreatment

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98

T/F: Legally, the person who hears or sees signs of abuse must report

True. Telling the principal is NOT enough

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99

T/F: your principal can report after you tell them and you're off the hook

False. You must make the report or be present

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100

Reports made are not _____ but are ______

anonymous, confidential

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