Morin The Brain

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Brain lesion

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Psychology

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1

Brain lesion

naturally/experimentally destroyed brain tissue to study animal behaviors after such destruction

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Electroencephalogram (EEG)

Amplified recording of electrical waves across brains surface - measured by electrodes on scalp

non intrusive and painless

<p>Amplified recording of electrical waves across brains surface - measured by electrodes on scalp</p><p>non intrusive and painless</p>
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different colors of EEG

Blue is non-active area Red/orange shows activity

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Magnetoencephalography (MEG)

a patient completes tasks and thousands of neurons create electrical pulses which create magnetic fields

speed and strength helps researchers understand how tasks influence brain activity

<p>a patient completes tasks and thousands of neurons create electrical pulses which create magnetic fields</p><p>speed and strength helps researchers understand how tasks influence brain activity</p>
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5

What are MEGs used for

surgical brain mapping

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PET scan

you drink a sugary glucose liquid beforehand -- active neurons gobble glucose

visual display of brain activity that detects a radioactive form of glucose while the brain performs a task

<p>you drink a sugary glucose liquid beforehand -- active neurons gobble glucose</p><p>visual display of brain activity that detects a radioactive form of glucose while the brain performs a task</p>
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MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of brain tissue

<p>uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer-generated images that distinguish among different types of brain tissue</p>
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fMRI

uses magnetic fields and radio waves that distinguish brain tissue and shows the structures that are functioning

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MRI vs fMRI

fMRI is a video it shows which structures are working MRI is a picture

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MRI vs X-Rays

MRI shows ligaments, x-rays show bones

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CT Scans

x-ray photos from 180 angles that create a cross-sectional image

<p>x-ray photos from 180 angles that create a cross-sectional image</p>
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Brainstem

the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions

<p>the oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull; the brainstem is responsible for automatic survival functions</p>
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Medulla

base of brainstem - controls heartbeat and breathing

<p>base of brainstem - controls heartbeat and breathing</p>
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Reticular formation

a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal

<p>a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal</p>
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Pons

Sits directly above medulla Connects upper and lower part of the brain, controls dreams during REM stage

<p>Sits directly above medulla Connects upper and lower part of the brain, controls dreams during REM stage</p>
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Thalamus

Sensory switchboard - directs messages to sensory areas in cortex, sends replies to cerebellum and medulla

at top of brainstem

<p>Sensory switchboard - directs messages to sensory areas in cortex, sends replies to cerebellum and medulla</p><p>at top of brainstem</p>
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What sense does the thalamus not process

Smell

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Cerebellum

the "little brain" at the rear of the brainstem

coordinates voluntary movements and balance

<p>the &quot;little brain&quot; at the rear of the brainstem</p><p>coordinates voluntary movements and balance</p>
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limbic system

System of neural structures at border of brainstem and cerebrum

associated with fear, aggression, hunger, sex

<p>System of neural structures at border of brainstem and cerebrum</p><p>associated with fear, aggression, hunger, sex</p>
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Amygdala

Part of the limbic system - two almond-shaped neural clusters linked to fear and anger

<p>Part of the limbic system - two almond-shaped neural clusters linked to fear and anger</p>
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Hypothalamus

Part of the limbic system, under thalamus

directs maintenance activities (eating, drinking, temperature, emotion), helps govern endocrine system w pituitary gland

<p>Part of the limbic system, under thalamus</p><p>directs maintenance activities (eating, drinking, temperature, emotion), helps govern endocrine system w pituitary gland</p>
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4 F's Hypothalamus is responsible for...

Food, fight, flight, fornication

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Two parts of hypothalamus

lateral hypothalamus and ventromedial hypothalamus

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Hippocampus

forms, stores, processes memory

part of limbic system, (looks like a seahorse)

<p>forms, stores, processes memory</p><p>part of limbic system, (looks like a seahorse)</p>
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parts of the limbic system

Hypothalamus, amygdala, hippocampus

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Cerebral Cortex

The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres

the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.

<p>The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres</p><p>the body&apos;s ultimate control and information-processing center.</p>
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Four lobes of cerebral cortex

frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal

separated by prominent fissures

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Frontal lobe

functions include planning, organizing, problem solving, "higher cognitive functions" - behavior and emotions

fully mature at 25

<p>functions include planning, organizing, problem solving, &quot;higher cognitive functions&quot; - behavior and emotions</p><p>fully mature at 25</p>
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Prefrontal cortex

the frontmost portion of the frontal lobes - especially important for decision making

<p>the frontmost portion of the frontal lobes - especially important for decision making</p>
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Back of the frontal lobe

pre-motor/motor areas -- motor cortex

<p>pre-motor/motor areas -- motor cortex</p>
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Damage to the frontal lobe

Change in talking, mood, mental flexibility, socialization and behavior

IQ does not get impactd

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32

Parietal lobe

processes sensory input/discrimination, body orientation

<p>processes sensory input/discrimination, body orientation</p>
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somatosensory cortex

registers and processes body touch and movement sensations

<p>registers and processes body touch and movement sensations</p>
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primary somatosensory cortex

area of the parietal lobe where messages from the sense receptors are registered

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35

secondary somatosensory cortex

Region of cerebral cortex that analyzes information from the primary somatosensory cortex and thalamus;

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Damage to the Parietal Lobe

disorientation of environment or parts of body, can't distinguish sensory stimuli

severe: can't recognize yourself

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Occipital lobe

primary visual reception/association area - allows for visual interpretation

<p>primary visual reception/association area - allows for visual interpretation</p>
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Damages to occipital lobe

hallucinations

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39

temporal lobe

hearing and auditory interpretation -- damages cause hearing deficits

<p>hearing and auditory interpretation -- damages cause hearing deficits</p>
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40

Homunculus

a maplike representation of regions of the body in the brain

shows how a person would look if it was proportionate to the amount of the brain that goes towards it -- lips would be biggest

<p>a maplike representation of regions of the body in the brain</p><p>shows how a person would look if it was proportionate to the amount of the brain that goes towards it -- lips would be biggest</p>
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41

aphasia

inability to speak

caused by damage to Broca's area or wernicke's area (both in left hemisphere)

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42

Broca's area

left frontal lobe -- impairs speaking

specialized strip of neurons used for speech production

<p>left frontal lobe -- impairs speaking</p><p>specialized strip of neurons used for speech production</p>
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43

wernicke's area

left parietal/temporal lobe - impairs understanding

this typically allows you to comprehend the words people speak

<p>left parietal/temporal lobe - impairs understanding</p><p>this typically allows you to comprehend the words people speak</p>
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44

angular gyrus

transforms visual representations into an auditory code - helps with reading

on temporal, parietal and frontal (TPF)

<p>transforms visual representations into an auditory code - helps with reading</p><p>on temporal, parietal and frontal (TPF)</p>
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45

visual cortex

The visual processing areas of cortex in the occipital and temporal lobes.

receives written words as visual stimulation

<p>The visual processing areas of cortex in the occipital and temporal lobes.</p><p>receives written words as visual stimulation</p>
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46

Do you want an EEG to show brain activity

no because you can't isolate the different parts being used

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47

which parts are used to hear words

auditory cortex and wernicke's area

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48

Which parts are used to see words

visual cortex and angular gyrus

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49

which parts are used to speak words

Broca's and motor cortex

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50

association areas

areas of the cerebral cortex that are composed of neurons that help provide sense and meaning to information registered in the cortex -- they're multitaskers that have a lot of different info but aren't highly specialized

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51

plasticity

the brain's ability to change -- decreases with age

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52

what is the brain sculpted by

genes and experiences

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53

Plasticity in sensory deficits

if there's a deficit neurons can go from one place to the other to help the body

EX: If you're blind neurons go to other senses

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54

Plasticity with repeated behaviors

if you do something often enough (typically at a young age) association area neurons can become specialized

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55

how is the brain controlled

contra-laterally left hem controls right side right hem controls left side

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56

left hemisphere

reading, writing, speaking, math and comprehension skills

(Broca's and wernicke's are here)

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57

right hemisphere

spatial abilities, face recognition, visual imagery, music

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58

corpus callosum

the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them

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59

How to split the brain and why

cut the corpus callosum

if you have an epilepsy or a stroke or some storm in the brain cutting this protects it from spreading

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60

how a severed corpus callosum impacts seeing objects

objects in the right visual sphere (processed by left) can be named but in the left they can't

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optic nerves

the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain

don't get severed when corpus is cut

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62

divided consciousness post severed corpus callosum

the two sides of the brain have processed two different things

if you see heart the person would verbalize they saw "art" but with their left hand point to "he"

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63

chimeric figures test

constructed of two half pictures arranged so that patients fixate upon the vertical division between the two half stimuli

tests which hemisphere is dominant & how a split brain patient processes things

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64

how information is processed in non-split brains

two hemispheres share information through corpus callosum - work together

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65

what factors influence handedness

genes/prenatal factors

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66

what professions are lefties more prominent in

musicians, mathematicians, baseball players, architects, artists

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how percentage of left handers is impacted by age

percentage decreases sharply in older people

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68

The two types of nervous systems

Central nervous system and peripheral nervous system

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69

Sensory Neurons (Afferent neurons)

carry nerve impulses from receptors/sense organs to CNS

tells the CNS what's happened

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Motor Neurons (Efferent Neurons)

carry nerve impulses AWAY from CNS to muscles

tell the body what the CNS says

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Interneurons

connect sensory and motor neurons, only exist in the CNS

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Central Nervous System

Brain and Spinal cord

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73

peripheral nervous system

the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body

Consist of autonomic and somatic nervous system

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74

Autonomic nervous system

controls self regulated actions of internal organs

Sympathetic and parasympathetic

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75

Sympathetic nervous system

Arousing

Part of the autonomic nervous system (peripheral)

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Parasympathetic nervous system

Calming

Part of the autonomic nervous system (peripheral)

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77

Somatic nervous system

part of the peripheral nervous system

controls voluntary movements (deals with the body)

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Nervous System

Consists of all nerve cells -- speedy electrochemical communication system

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Examples of what the autonomic nervous system controls

breathing, blinking, heartbeat, digestion, salivation, sweating, arousal

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80

When does the sympathetic nervous system activate

in stressful situations it arouses the body and mobilizes its energy

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81

When does the parasympathetic nervous system activate

in calming situations it calms the body, conserving its energyt

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82

Does the spinal cord feel things (pain, pleasure, etc)

No, this all comes from the brain

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83

Can the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous system work together?

no, when one is on the other is off

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84

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS - Lou Gehrig's disease)

"No muscle nourishment" - progressive degeneration of motor neurons affecting nerve cells in brain and spinal cord

when motor neurons die the brain can't initiate/control muscle movement -> can lead to total paralyzation

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85

The Endocrine System

the body's "slow" chemical communication system

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86

How does the endocrine system communicate

carried out by hormones synthesized by a set of glands

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87

Hormones

chemicals synthesized by the endocrine glands and secreted in the bloodstream -- affect the brain and other tissues o the body

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88

Epinephrine (adrenaline)

increases heart rate, blood pressure, blood sugar, excitement during emergency situations

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Pituitary Gland

"master" gland has an anterior and posterior

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90

Anterior pituitary gland

Releases hormones that regulate other glands

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Posterior pituitary gland

Regulates water and salt balance

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92

Thyroid Gland

Affects/regulates metabolism

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93

Dendrites

Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.

<p>Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.</p>
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Soma/the cell body

contains the cell nucleus, connected to dendrites

<p>contains the cell nucleus, connected to dendrites</p>
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Nucleus

knowt flashcard image
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Axon

the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers

<p>the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers</p>
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Myelin Sheath

Insulates axon, helps the speed of neural transition

<p>Insulates axon, helps the speed of neural transition</p>
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98

Nodes of Ranvier

knowt flashcard image
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99

Terminal buttons/buds

Neurotransmitters are here

<p>Neurotransmitters are here</p>
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100

Terminal branches

knowt flashcard image
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