Pig Anatomy Vocab

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Alveoli

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103 Terms

1

Alveoli

Tiny air sacs in the lungs designed to exchange gaseous oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blodd

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2

Anterior vena cava

Vein of the heart receives blood from portions of the body anterior to the heart

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3

Anus

External opening to the rectum controlled by sphincter muscles

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4

Aorta

The largest artery in the body, bringing oxygenated blood from the left ventricle of the heart

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5

Atrium

One of two upper chambers of the heart; the left atrium receives oxygenated blood via the pulmonary veins, and the right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the body via the anterior vena cava and posterior vena cava

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6

Auricle

External, earlike flap composed of muscle from the atria

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7

Bladder

Hollow, muscular organ that stores urine from the kidneys

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8

Bronchi

The two branches of the trachea that carry gases into and out of the lungs

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9

Bronchioles

Branches of the bronchi that no longer contain cartilage and eventually end in alveoli

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10

Cardiac region, stomach

Region of the stomach adjacent to the cardiac sphincter that recieves food from the esophagus

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11

Cardiac sphincter

Muscle that opens to allow food to enter the stomach and can contract to prevent food from going back up the esophogus

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12

Chest plate

The sternum and attached ribs that cover the heart and lungs

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13

Coronary artery

Artery supplying oxygenated blood to the heart muscle

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14

Cortex, Kidney

The outer region of the kidney where the blood is filtered

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15

Diaphragm

Bell-shaped muscle that seperates the abdominal cavity from the thoracic cavity

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16

Diener

A morgue assistant who helps a medical examiner with observations and dissection

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17

Duodenum

The beginning of the small intestine that is connected to the stomach

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18

Esophagus

Muscular tube extending from the mouth to the stomach that transports partially digested food

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19

Estrogen

Primary female sex hormone responsible for female sex characteristics and regulating the menstrual cycle

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20

Fundic region, stomach

Top portion of the stomach located above the cardiac region

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21

Gall bladder

Small, pear-shaped organ that stores bile produced by the liver until needed for digestion

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22

Glucagon

A hormone produced by the pancreas that can increase blood sugar levels when needed

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23

Hydrochloric acid

The main component of gastric acid in the stomach

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24

Illeocecal valve

Sphincter muscle controlling the passage

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25

Ileum

The terminal section of the small intestine that connects to the large intestine

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26

Insulin

Hormone that helps regulate blood glucose levels by decreasing any excess glucose

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27

Jejunum

The central portion of the small intestine between the duodenum and the ileum

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28

Kidney

Bean-shaped organ that filters the blood and excretes urea and water as urine

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29

Larynx

Voice box having vocal cords which produce distinct sounds for communication

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30

Liver

Organ at the base of the lungs that decomposes toxins and drugs as well as the waste byproducts of protein metabolism. It also stores vitamins, iron, and glycogen

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31

Lymph nodes

Glands that collect and destroy bacteria and viruses

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32

Meconium

Material in the digestive tract of a fetus, ingested before birth, consisting of amniotic fluid, mucous, and cells from the skin and digestive tract

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33

Medulla, kidney

The central portion of the kidney containing the renal pyramids that empty wastes into the renal pelvis and ureter

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34

Mesentery

Folds of membranes that hold the small intestine together and attach it to the dorsal abdominal wall

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35

Ovaries

Female reproductive organs that produce ova and hormones

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36

Oviduct

Tube running from the ovary to the uterus that allows eggs to be transported to the uterus

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37

Pancreas

Digestive organ that produces insuline and pancreatic juice for digestion

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38

Penis

Male organ for reproduction and urination

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39

Posterior vena cava

Vein of the heart receiving blood from portions of the body posterior to the heart

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40

Prosector

Medical examiner or forensic pathologist who conducts an autopsy to determine the cause of death

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41

Pyloric region, stomach

Lower portion of the stomach adjacent to the pyloric sphincter

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42

Pyloric sphincter

Valve controlling the passage of food from the stomach to the small intestine

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43

Rectum

The final straight portion of the colon, just prior to the anus

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44

Renal pelvis

Funnel-like structure that empties into the ureter

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45

Rugae

Folds in the stomach that allow it to expand. They also contain the gastric glands for digestion

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46

Scrotum

External sac containing the testes

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47

Spleen

Organ lying dorsal to the stomach that is part of the lymphatic system. It destroys and recycles old red blood cells, produces antibodies, and supplies extra blood volume in emergencies

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48

Testes

Male reproductive glands that produce sperm and testosterone

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49

Thymus

Endocrine gland in the throat region involved with the development of the immune system

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50

Thyroid

Endocrine gland that produces thyroxine for regulating metabolic rates

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51

Trachea

Cartilage-lined airway leading from the larynx to the bronchi of the lungs

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52

Umbilical cord

Tube connecting the fetus with the placenta

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53

Ureter

Muscular tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder

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54

Urethra

Tube through which urine from the bladder is discharged

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55

Uterine horns

Left and right extensions of the uterus in certain mammals to accommodate large litters

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56

Uterus

Organ in female mammals that serves as the site for fetal implantation and development

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57

Vas deferens

Duct connecting the epididymis to the urethra in male mammals

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58

Ventricle

One of two lower chambers of the heart; the left ventricle forces blood into the aorta, and the right ventricle forces blood into the pulmonary arteries

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59

Dorsal side

The back plane

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60

Ventral side

The belly plane

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61

Anterior side

Toward the head or front

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62

Posterior

Toward the tail or rear

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63

Lateral

Toward the side

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64

Medial

Toward the midline

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Proximal

In a limb only; closer to body attachment

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Distal

In a limb only; further away from the body attachment

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Thymosin

A hormone that stimulates the maturation of T cells

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68

T cells

A type of white blood cell that is made in the bone marrow and matured here

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69

Sternum

Protects the heart and lungs

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70

Large intestine

Absorbs water and changes waste from liquid to stool

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71

Small intestine

Further digests food coming from the stomach

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72

Lungs

Process of respiration, breathing

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73

Pericardial sac (pericardium)

A fluid-filled membrane that surrounds the heart and supports, cushions, and lubricates it

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74

Septum

Prevents the mixing of oxygen-poor and oxygen-rich blood

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75

Pulmonary circulation

Where blood is pumped to the lungs and back

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76

Arteries

Large vessels that carry blood from the heart to the tissues of the body

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77

Veins

Return oxygen-poor blood back to the heart

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78

Valve

Keep blood from moving toward the heart

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79

Apex

The “point” of the bottom of the heart

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80

Glycogen

Chains of the glucose sugar

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81

Bile

Helps to break down fats

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82

Bile duct

Drains bile into the small intestine

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83

Bolus

Partially digested food, lump

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84

Corpus

The largest portion of the stomach, the curved region

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85

Chyme

Liquified food

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86

Amniotic fluid

Liquid that surrounds the unborn baby during pregnancy

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87

Adrenal glands

Sit on top of the kidneys and react to stress

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88

Adrenaline

Hormone the adrenal glands produce to react to stress

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89

Renal artery and vein

Conducts blood to the kidney

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90

Nephrons

Where excess water, salts, and proteins are filtered from the blood

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91

Progesterone

Female hormone that prepares the uterus for the development of a fertilized egg and sustains the pregnancy during the early stages

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92

Fallopian tube

A small tube that is connected to each ovary and transports the eggs to a larger tube (the uterine horn)

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93

Epididymis

Where sperm mature and are stored

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94

Autopsy

A Greek word meaning “to see for oneself”

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95

Clinical autopsy

Done in hospitals to determine the cause of death, usually for research or due to a family request

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96

Forensic autopsy

Done for legal purposes when “foul play” is suspected

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97

Forensic pathologist

A physician who has graduated from medical school and has done a residency

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98

Prosector

Conducts an autopsy

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99

Diener

Helps the prosector

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100

Materials manager

Organizes and handles medical instruments

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