Biological bases pyschology

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Phrenology

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Psychology

129 Terms

1

Phrenology

Bumps of skull represented mental abilities

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Founder of phrenology

Franz Gall

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3

Neural communication

Humans and animals operate similarly when processing information

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4

Brain wrinkles and intelligence relationship

The more wrinkles the more smart you are

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5

Neurons

100 billion of them, serves as messenger, is unique because of their shape and function

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6

Dendrites

recieve messages from other cells

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Axon

Sends messages to other neurons

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Myelin sheath

Substance that covers axon

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9

Neural impulse

Signal traveling from dendrite to axon

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10

Gilal cells

Cells that support/protect neurons

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11

Astrocytes

Nutrition to neurons

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12

Oligodendrocytes/schwann

Insulate neurons as myelin

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13

Polarized neuron

When neuron is not firing, sodium flows in, outside is more positive charged inside is more negative charged

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14

Axon surface is...

Selectively permeable

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15

When a neuron fires, it has an...

neural impulse, caused by movement of positive ions in and out of membrane

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16

Sodium potassium pumps

Pump sodium ions out of neuron making them ready for another neural impulse

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17

All or none response

Neurons either fire or they don’t once they reach an absolute threshold

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18

Synapse

Gap between two cells where they can pass messages to communicate

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19

Neurotransmitters

How neurons communicate

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20

Reuptake

Neurotransmitter's reabsorption by sending neuron

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21

Lock and key mechanism

Neurotransmitters bind to receptors of receiving neuron in key lock mechanism

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22

Excitatory vs inhibitory neurotransmitter

Excitatory opens neuron to fit key to promote action potential, inhibitory fits one key and stops others depressing action potential

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23

Acetylcholine

E Neurotransmitter that helps motor movement and memory. Undersupply results in alzheimers/paralysis

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24

Dopamine

E/I Neurotransmitter that helps alertness and pleasure. Undersupply results in parkinson’s disease. Oversupply results in schizo

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25

GABA

Most common inhibitory neurotransmitter. Undersupply results in anxiety or epilepsy

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26

Glutamate

Most common exhibitory neurotransmitter important for memory. Oversupply results in ALS and seizures

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27

Endorphins

I neurotransmitter that alleviates pain. Undersupply results in chronic pain

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28

Serotonin

I neurotransmitter that helps with mood and sensory perception. Undersupply results in depression. Oversupply results in anxiety

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29

Substance P

Neurotransmitter relates to pain

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30

Norepinephrine

E neurotransmitter that relates to arousal. Undersupply results in depression

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31

Vesicles

Store neurotransmitters which are released at synaptic cleft

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32

Agonists

Mimic neurotransmitters

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33

Antagonists

Block neurotransmitters

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34

Psychoactive drugs

Tolerance, physical dependence, withdrawal

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35

Depressants

Slow down central nervous system (alcohol, opiates)

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36

Opiates

Suppress pain, induce sleep and euphoria (opium, oxy, heroin)

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37

Hallucinogens

Alter perception and create hallucination (LSD, shrooms)

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38

Stimulants

Speed up activities (caffeine, nicotine, cocaine)

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39

Reuptake inhibitor

Antidepressant

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40

Nerves

Neural cables containing many axons

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41

Sensory (Afferent) neurons

Sensory organs to brain (INPUT)

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42

Motor (Efferent) neurons

Brain to muscles (OUTPUT)

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43

Effector cells

Respond to stimulus at end of neuron

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44

Interneurons

Carry information between other neurons

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45

Autonomic nervous system

Regulates function of internal organs and involuntary responses

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46

Somatic nervous system

Regulates voluntary movements

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47

Sympathetic nervous system

Arousing nervous system

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48

Parasympathetic nervous system

Calming nervous system

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49

Central nervous system

Brain and spinal cord

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50

Peripheral nervous system

Nerves

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51

Refractory period

After a neuron fires an action potential it pauses for a short period to recharge itself again

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52

Endocrine system

Body’s chemical commmunication system

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53

Hormones

Carries out communication

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54

How do hormones affect your behavior?

They affect energy levels, mood, growth of body structures

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55

Pituitary gland

Produces many hormones

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56

Thyroid gland

Affects metabolism

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57

Parathyroids

Regulates level of calcium in blood

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58

Adrenal glands

Triggers sympathetic system

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59

Pancreas

Regulates level of sugar in blood

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60

Brain lesion

Destroys brain tissue to study animal behaviors

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61

Autopsy

Post death study of brain to compare brain changes with behavior

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Clinical observations

They shed light on number of brain disorders

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63

EEG

Amplified recording of electrical waves across brain surface

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64

CT scan

Xray photograph

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65

PET scan

Radioactive form of glucose

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66

MRI

Magnetic fields and radio waves to examine different types of brain tissue

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67

fMRI

Looks at brain functioning by examining changes in blood flow

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68

Brainstem

Oldest part of brain responsible for automatic survival functions

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69

Medulla

Basic life functioning and reflexes

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70

Pons

Sleep wake cycle

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71

Reticular formation

Alertness to incoming stimuli

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72

Cerebellum

Movement

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73

Thalamus

Sensory except smell

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74

Limbic system

Doughnut shaped system associated with fear, aggression, and drives for food and sex

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Amygdala

Clusters linked to fear and aggression

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76

Hypothalamus

Controls 4 F’s, body temperature, and endocrine system

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The 4 F’s

Fight, flee, feed, fornicate

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Ventromedial hypothalamus

Suppresses hunger

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79

Lateral hypothalamus

Increases hunger

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80

An increase in ghrelin…

Increases hunger

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81

An increase in insulin

Decreases hunger

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82

Reward deficiency syndrome

People crave whatever provides missing pleasure

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83

Hippocampus

Associated with memory

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84

Cerebral cortex

Body’s ultimate control and processing center

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85

Frontal lobes

Decision making and movement

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86

Parietal lobes

Spatial processing

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87

Occipital lobes

Visual info

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88

Temporal lobes

Auditory processing and facial recognition

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89

Motor cortex

Control voluntary movements

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90

Somatosensory cortex

Body sensations

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91

Association areas

Areas of cerebral cortex that are involved in higher mental functions

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92

Animals and association areas

More intelligent animals have increased association areas

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93

Aphasia

Impairment of language

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94

Broca’s area

Impaired speaking

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95

Wemicke’s area

Impaired understanding

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96

Plasticity

Brain’s ability to modify after an injury

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97

Neurogenesis

Formation of new neurons wihch happens from adulthood

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98

Long term potentiation

The more you use a neural pathway, it creates dendrites

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99

Neural networks

Interconnected neural cells

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100

Splitting brain

Isolating two hemispheres by cutting connecting fibers from corpus callosum

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