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components of saliva
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glycoproteins (mucin), proteins (gustin and enzymes), ions, immunoglobulins
Which of the following sensory mechanoreceptors can be seen in the histological image?
what type of burn is this?
3rd degree, full thickness
which of the following skin regions has been infiltrated by inflammatory cells (lymphocytes)?
which junctional complex of the epidermis has been impacted?
what is the pathological condition? on A
basal cell carcinoma
what do the numbers represent?
1) Corneum 2) Lucidum 3) Granulosum 4) Spinosum 5) Basale
where is this tissue located?
middle of esophagus. notice presence of skeletal and smooth muscle
what do the letters represent?
A: mucosa B: submucosa C: muscularis externa D: adventita/serosa
what organ is this from? and what are the numbers
stomach. 1) gastric pit 2) gastric gland star is the muscularis mucosa, 4) submucosa
what is the pathological condition?
main function of saliva
facilitates swallowing, moisten oral epithelium, neutralize plaque acid, oral immunity
transport via ducts
high protein, low carb. stain deeply
serous cells appearance
triangle profile, eosinophilic secretory granules at apex. basophilic nucleus
what type of cells are shown?
low protein, high carb. greater emphasis on lubrication
mucous cells appearance
pale and eosinophilic. pyramidal, wide base w/ nucleus
collection of salivary cells with just the saliva producing cells in aggregates
group of serous cells. resembles a raspberry. apical surfaces of cells face lumen. where acinus ends, exocrine ducts begin
group of mucous cells
outer layer of acinus
basal membrane that secludes from surrounding tissues
what is the structure?
mixed mucous and serous
what are the structures?
lobe and lobule
outer connective tissue capsule (beige). surrounds and penetrates salivary tissues. divides gland into lobes and lobules
dense ct parotid capsule
ducts found within lobules, within parenchyma. can be intercalated or striated
leaves parenchyma. excretory duct aka collecting duct
order of duct movement
intercalated disk → striated duct → excretory duct
smaller than acinus/tubule. short cuboidal cells. nuclei fill cells. narrow lumen
tall columnar cells. bands of mitochondria. central nuclei, wide lumen
saliva initially _____ to blood plasma, then becomes _______
within CT, outside of lobes. distinct columnar epithelium. sometimes stratified, sometimes pseudostratified
almost completely serous
serous and mucous cells. telltale indicator is demilunes which are serous crescent moons adjacent to mucous tubules
demilune of submandibular gland
mucous tubules with serous demilunes
what type of gland?
exclusively mucous cells
surround acini and intercalated disk. stellate cells w processes. flat nuclei, stained brown. provides contractile support and innervated by sympathetic and parasympathetic
elongated nucleus of myoepithelial cells
myoepithelial cell on a mucous tubule
what is the gland?
what type of duct?
striated to the left, intercalated duct on the right
identify the duct
what ducts are pictured?
what is the hardest substance in the body?
extend from DEJ to outer surface of crown. diameter inc towards outer surface
what is bw rods?
rigid (harder than bone and cementum), elastic (softer than enamel). 70% hydroxyapatite, 20% collagen, 10% water. protects the whole tooth structure unlike enamel. can regenerate
pulpal surface to dentinoenamel and DEJ. contain processes of odontoblasts and dentinal fluid. sigmoid course, aka primary curve
first to form. 2 subdivisions
outermost later of primary. at DEJ. larger diameter collagen fibrils here
borders pulp. bulk of primary dentin. more mineralized than mantle. s curve found here
innermost layer. non mineralized. adjacent to odontoblasts
reparative response to damage (cavities, restorative procedures). more rapid=more irregular
specialized connective tissue. predominantly fibroblasts (GAGs, collagen fibers). support matrix for neurovasculature
cell free zone nerves
cell rich zone
nervous plexus. unmyelinated axons may terminate among odontoblasts or continue into tubules
where is there a pathway for infection?
root canals- connect pulp chamber with periodontal tissues
thin layer of calcified tissue lining root. seals surface of root dentin and open dentin tubules. softer than dentin. large collagen content