Communications Final

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136 Terms

1

abstract

words are not concrete or tangible items; they are only representations

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2

accent

nonverbal behaviors that augment a verbal message

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3

acceptance

third step of the persuasion process in which the audience accepts that the issue is relevant to them

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4

alliteration

repeating the same consonant or vowel sound at the beginning of subsequent words

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5

ambiguous

language that does not have precise, concrete meanings

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6

antithesis

when two ideas that sharply contrast with one another are put side by side in a parallel structure

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7

arbitrary

symbols used to represent things that are not intrinsically connected to those things

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8

archetypal metaphors

metaphors that use common human experiences to describe another object

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9

artistic proof

constructed by the speaker for the occasion; concerns ethos, pathos, and logos

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10

autocratic leadership

a style of leadership in which a leader tells group members what they should do

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11

awareness

first stage of the persuasion process in which you focus the audience’s attention on the issue and show why the issue is important

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12

bias

an unfair preference or distortion of information

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13

bookend group presentation

a group presentation in which the first speaker is also the last speaker, providing both the introduction and conclusion for the group

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14

bookend story

a narrative in which the speaker tells the first part of a story as an attention getter in the introduction of his/her speech and then finishes the story in the closer at the end of the conclusion

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15

brief example

an example that makes a very quick point and can be effective at any point in a speech

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16

categorical syllogism

a syllogism in which the argument is based on membership in a group

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17

channel

the media through which an encoded message is transmitted from a source to a receiver

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18

clincher

the final statement of your speech

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19

communication apprehension

the fear or anxiety associated with real or anticipated communication with another or others

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20

complement

when the action demonstrates the message contained in the verbal content

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21

comprehension

stage of the persuasion process in which the audience understands the relevant components of the issue and the position that you want them to take

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22

conditional syllogism

a syllogism in which the major premise contains a hypothetical condition and its outcome

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23

coordination

all information on the same level has the same significance

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24

dais

a table at which people sit in the front of the room

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25

decoding

process of drawing meaning from the symbols that were used to encode a message

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26

deductive reasoning

an argument that reasons from known premises to an inevitable conclusion

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27

democratic leadership

a style of leadership in which a leader finds a balanced emphasis on task and maintenance dimensions in a group

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28

demographics

categories of definable characteristics of groups of people, such as age, race, religion, socioeconomic status, education level, and sexual orientation

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29

derived credibility

the form of credibility that manifests itself during your presentation

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30

disjunctive syllogism

a syllogism in which the major premise includes two or more mutually exclusive alternatives

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31

division

principle that if a point is divided into subpoints, there must be two or more subpoints

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32

encoding

taking an abstract notion and providing it with meaning through the application of symbols

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33

ethics

involve morals and the specific moral choices to be made by a person

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34

ethos

the credibility of the speaker

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35

expert testimony

testimony from someone who has conducted extensive research on the topic, has significant experience with the topic, or holds a position that lends credibility to their ideas on the subject matter

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36

extemporaneous speech

a speech delivered with notes but without the entire speech in front of the speaker

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37

extended example

an example that takes time, and the importance lies in the details

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38

feedback

the receiver’s response to a message that is sent to the sender

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39

figurative analogy

when the two cases being compared are from completely different classifications

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40

general purpose statement

a brief statement representing what you aim to do with the speech; there are three types

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41

global plagiarism

taking an entire piece of work and saying that it is your own

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42

hierarchical

language that is structured according to more or less, higher or lower

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43

histogram

a visual representation of a frequency table in which the categories are placed on the horizontal axis and the vertical bars are used to represent the number (or frequency) of individuals that fit into that category

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44

hypothetical example

an example that is fictional

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45

impromptu speech

a presentation done with little or no preparation

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46

inartistic proofs

all the evidence, data, and documents that exist outside of the speaker and the audience, but nevertheless can aid in persuasion

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47

incremental plagiarism

using part of someone else’s work and not citing it as a source

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48

inductive reasoning

an argument that comes to a probable, instead of an absolute, conclusion

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49

initial credibility

the credibility that you have with the audience before you begin your speech that is based on your experience and the audience’s prior knowledge about you

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50

integration

the fourth step of the persuasive process in which the audience adopts the position that you want them to take

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51

interactive model of communication

communication theory that views communication as a two-way process that includes feedback and the environment

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52

internal summary

a statement that summarizes what you have already covered and precedes transitions

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53

internal preview

serves as an outline of what is to come next in a speech and is often combined with transition statements

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54

issue awareness

first stage of the persuasion process, in which you focus the audience’s attention on the issue and show why the issue is important

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55

laissez-faire leadership

the style of leadership in which the leader provides little direction on the task and makes little effort to develop or maintain relationships between group members

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56

leader-as-completer approach

a leadership approach in which the leader is the person who is responsible for completing tasks that are not finished or undertaken by other group members

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57

linear model of communication

theory that views communication as a one-way process in which a source conveys an encoded message through a channel to a receiver, who then decodes that message

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58

literal analogy

when the two cases being compared are classified the same way

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59

logos

the logical dimension of the appeal

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60

manuscript speech

when a speaker has an entire speech written out word-for-word in front of them as they speak

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61

measures of central tendency

statistics that indicate where the middle of a distribution lies, including the mean, median, and mode

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62

memorized speech

when a speaker commits an entire speech to memory and delivers it with no notes in front of them

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63

message

the content or idea that the source tries to convey to the audience

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64

metaphor

linguistic device that allows for comparisons between two objects by highlighting qualities of each object in explicit comparison

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65

metonymy

using a tangible object to represent an otherwise intangible thing

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66

mixed metaphor

metaphors that compare two objects that have no logical connection with each other

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67

moderator

a person who acts as the coordinator of the discussion flow and ensures a civil, organized, and complete delivery of information to the audience

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68

necessary cause

a cause that must be present for an effect to happen

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69

noise

anything that can change the message after the sources encodes and sends it

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70

object

the thing being discussed, not a model or representation of that thing

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71

panel group presentation

a group presentation in which individual speakers present their ideas on a single topic or a subset of a topic

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72

parallelism

similarly structuring related words, phrases, or clauses of speech

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73

patchworking

a speaker or writer takes original source material and changes a few words in it, but not enough to consider it a paraphrase, all the while not citing the original source material

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74

patchwork plagiarism

taking ideas from more than one piece of work and putting them together into a new piece of work, and then presenting them as original work without giving due credit to the sources

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75

pathos

the emotional dimensions of the appeal that can influence an audience’s disposition toward the topic, speaker, or occasion

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76

peer testimony

testimony from someone who is in the same peer group as the audience but who is not necessarily an expert on the topic

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77

phobias

a persistent, irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that leads to a compelling desire to avoid

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78

physical delivery

elements of speaking that deal with the body

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79

pronunciation

the accepted standard of how a word sounds when spoken

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80

question of fact

when a speaker seeks to persuade people about how to interpret facts

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81

question of policy

when a speaker takes a position on whether an action should or should not be taken

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82

question of value

a persuasive speech about the rightness or wrongness of an idea, action, or issue

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83

real example

an example that is factual

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84

reasoning by analogy

when you compare two similar cases to argue that what is true in one case is also true in the other

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85

reasoning by cause

arguments that claim one event or factor produces an effect

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86

reasoning by example

the process of inferring general conclusions and making general claims from specific cases

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87

reasoning by sign

occurs when the presence of one thing indicates the presence of another

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88

receiver

the person or audience that a message is being transmitted to

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89

refutation

response to potential opposition to your argument \n

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90

regulate

nonverbal actions that help govern the course of a speech or interaction

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91

repeat

when physical actions restate verbal messages

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92

self-fulfilling prophecy

convincing yourself that something is going to happen before it does, thus leading to the occurrence of what you originally expected

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93

signposts

key words that signal to the audience that you are moving from one part of the speech to another

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94

simile

linguistic device that compares two things through the use of like or as

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95

source

the person responsible for inventing the idea on which they intend to speak and crafting that idea to an audience

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96

speaking tool

devices that assist speakers, such as microphones, podiums, lecterns, and lighting

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97

specific purpose statement

a narrower version of the general purpose statement that identifies what you will talk about, what you will say about it, and what you hope the audience will take away from the speech

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98

standard deviation

a measure of variability that indicates how spread apart the numbers in a distribution are

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99

statistics

numbers that summarize and organize sets of numbers to make them easier to understand or visualize

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100

subordination

process of creating a hierarchy of ideas in which the most general ideas appear first, followed by more specific ideas

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