Exam 3

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what are the four abdominal regions

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1

what are the four abdominal regions

RUQ, LUQ, RLQ, RUQ

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2

what organs can be found in the right upper quadrant

liver and gallbladder

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3

what organs can be found in the left upper quadrant

stomach, pancreas, spleen

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4

what organs can be found in the right lower quadrant

appendix

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5

what are the nerve root levels of the dermatomes of the thorax/abdominal region

T4, T6, T10, T12

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6

what landmark is the T4 dermatome

nipple line

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7

what landmark is the T6 dermatome

xiphoid (end of thoracic)

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8

what is the landmark of the T10 dermatome

umbilicus (belly button)

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9

what is the landmark of the T12 dermatome

inguinal region (pubis)

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10

what are the abdominal fascial layers

linea alba, camper fascia, scarpa fascia

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11

linea alba

tendinous structure formed by abdominal aponeurosis

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12

camper fascia

superficial fat layer

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13

scarpa fascia

deep fascia covering musculature

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14

what are the 4 abdominal muscles

external oblique, internal oblique, transverse abdominis, rectus abdominis

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15

what nerve innervates the abdominal muscles

subcostal nerve

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16

what nerve root level innervates the abdominal muscles

T6-T12

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17

what are the muscles of the back subdivided into

extrinsic and intrinsic

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18

subdivisions of extrinsic back muscles

superficial and intermedi

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19

subdivisions of intrinsic back muscle

superficial, intermediate, deep

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20

what group of muscles are in the intermediate layer of the intrinsic back mucles

erector spinae

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21

what muscles are included in the erector spinae

iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis

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22

examples of superficial extrinsic back muscles

trapesius, latissimus dorsi

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23

example of intermediate extrinsic back muscles

serratus posterior superior/ inferior

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24

example of superficial intrinsic back muscle

splenius capitis, splenius cervicis

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25

example of deep intrinsic back muscles

semispinalis, multifidus, interspinales

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26

what back muscle group does mostly stabilization activities

intrinsic muscles

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27

what back muscle group helps with movement of the upper extremities

extrinsic muscles

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28

what arteries does the common iliac branch into

external iliac, internal iliac

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29

where does the external iliac supply oxygenated blood to

lower extremities, abdominal wall

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30

where does the internal iliac supply oxygenated blood to

sphincters, reproductive organs

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31

what sacral nerve root levels have dermatomes

S1, S2

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32

what is the S1 dermatome

digit 5

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33

what is the S2 dermatome

popliteal fossa

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34

functions of the pelvic floor

supports abdominal/ pelvic viscera, resistance during straining, urinary/fecal continence

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35

what nerves innervate the pelvic floor

pudendal nerve and sacral plexus

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36

what is the name of the "tube" that connects "cheek to cheek"

esophagus

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37

what are the steps of digestion

ingestion, mechanical digestion, chemical break down, secretion, absorption, defecation

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38

ingestion

solid and liquid material into oral cavity

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39

mechanical digestion

propulsion (peristalsis) and segmentation

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40

chemical break down

breakdown for absorption

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41

secretion

water, acids, bile, digestive enzymes

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42

absoption

movement of nutrients

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43

defecation

elimination of solid wastes

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44

what innervates the salivary glands

vagus nerve

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45

what are the regions of the stomach

cardia, fundus, body, pyloric

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46

what are the functions of the stomach

secretion, chemical digestion, storage

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47

what are the parts of the small intestine

duodenum, jejunum, ileum

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48

duodenum

neutralize and digest

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49

jejunum

digest and absorb

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50

ileum

absorption

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51

what is a carbohydrate ingested as

polysaccharide

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52

what is a polysaccharide digested into

monosaccharide (glucose)

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53

what is the primary enzyme that breaks down polysaccharides

amylase

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54

where is amylase produced

saliva and pancrea

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55

what are proteins ingested as

polypeptides

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56

what are poly peptides digested into

amino acids

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57

what is the primary enzyme that breaks down polypeptides

protease

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58

where is protease produced

stomach and pancreas

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59

what are fats ingested as

triglycerides

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60

what are triglycerides digested into

fatty acids and monoglycerides

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61

what is the primary enzyme that breaks down triglycerides

lipase

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62

where is lipase produced

pancreas

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63

intraperitoneal

structures found within the peritoneum

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64

retroperitoneal

structures found behind the peritoneum

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65

what are the retroperitoneal structures

suprarenal galnds, aorta, duodenum, pancreas, ureters, colon, kidneys, esophagus, rectum

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66

what are the intraperitoneal structures

stomach, liver, parts of the intestines

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67

what does the large intestine consist of

cecum, colon, and rectum

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68

parts of the colon

ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid

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69

function of the large intestine

absorption and defecation

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70

functions of liver

creates bile, detoxification, metabolism, plasma protein formation

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71

where is the gallbladder located

right lobe of liver

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72

function of gallbladder

stores bile, helps break down fat

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73

digestive function of pancreas

produce enzymes to send into the small intestine

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74

hormonal function of pancreas

produces insulin

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75

function of spleen

removes red blood cells

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76

what is ATP

energy containing molecule found in cells

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77

how is ATP produced

glycolysis, krebs cycle and electron transport chain

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78

is phosphagen system aerobic or anaerobic

anaerobic

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79

how long do activities fueled by the phosphagen last

about 15 seconds

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80

how many ATP are produced per glucose via glycolysis

net 2

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81

is glycolysis aerobic or anerobic

anerobic

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82

what fuels the krebs cycle

pyruvate

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83

is krebs cycle anaerobic or aerobic

aerobic

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84

what does one glucose molecule produce from the krebs cycle

2 ATP, 8 NADH+H+, 2FADH2

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85

how many ATP are produced by each NADH+H+ in the electron transport chain

3 ATP

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86

how many ATP are produced by each FADH2 in the electron transport chain

2 ATP

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87

is the electron transport chain aerobic or anaerobic

aerobic

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88

if oxygen is present how many ATP can be produced for each glucose

38 ATP

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89

if oxygen is not present how many ATP can be produced for each glucose

2 ATP

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90

how many ATP are produced by each cleavage of a FA chain

5 ATP

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91

how many ATP is generated from each A-CoA

12 ATP

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92

what are the components of the kidney

renal cortex, renal medulla, renal pelvis

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93

renal cortex

outer portion that contains blood vessels

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94

renal medulla

innermost region that contains the nephron

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95

renal pelvis

connects the kidney to the rest of the body

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96

what are the functions of the kidney

volume of blood, concentration of ions, PH, metabolic, excretion, endocrine

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97

what is the functional unit of the kidney

nephron

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98

what are the main processes of the nephron

filtration, reabsorption, secretion

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99

filtration

filters water, ions, and small particles into the nephron

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100

reabsorption

take substances out of the nephron and back into the bloodstream

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