HR Exam 1

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4 skills employers desire most

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4 skills employers desire most

  1. critical thinking

  2. problem solving

  3. judgement and decision making

  4. active listening

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5 characteristics of bad employees

  1. problems with interpersonal relationships

  2. fail to hire, build, and lead a team

  3. fail to meet business objectives

  4. unable to change or adapt

  5. lack functional orientation

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organizational behavior

The study of individuals and groups within an organizational context, and the study of internal processes and practices as they influence the effectiveness of individuals, teams, and organizations

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leadership

the process of developing ideas and a vision, living by values that those ideas and that vision, influencing others to embrace them in their own behaviors, and making hard decisions about human and other resources

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leader

person who exhibits the key attributes of leadership

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manager

directs, controls, and plans the work of others and is responsible for results.

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3 key functions of leaders and managers

authority, responsibility, accountability

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authority

the right to make decisions

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responsibility

assignment for achieving a goal

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accountability

acceptance of success or failure

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7 competencies

self, diversity, across cultures, communication, teams, change, ethics

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ethics competency

The knowledge, skills, and abilities to incorporate values and principles that distinguish right from wrong when making decisions and choosing behaviors

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ethics

the values and principles that distinguish right from wrong

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self competency

The knowledge, skills, and abilities to assess your personal strengths and weaknesses, set and pursue professional and personal goals, balance work and personal life, and engage in new learning

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diversity competency

The knowledge, skills and abilities to value unique individual, group and organizational characteristics, embrace such characteristics as potential sources of strength, and appreciate uniqueness of each.

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across cultures competency

The knowledge, skills and abilities to recognize and embrace similarities and differences among nations and cultures.

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culture

the dominant pattern of living, thinking, feeling, and believing that is developed and transmitted by people, consciously or unconsciously, to subsequent generations

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communication competency

Knowledge, skills and abilities to use all the modes of transmitting, understanding, and receiving ideas, thoughts and feelings for accurately transferring and exchanging info

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teams competency

The knowledge, skills, and abilities to develop, support, and lead groups to achieve goals

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change competency

The knowledge, skills, and abilities to recognize and implement needed adaptations or entirely new transformations in the people, tasks, strategies, structures, or technologies

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capital

cash, valuables, or goods used to generate income. people are the most important in business

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Human Resource Management (HRM)

the process of employing people, training and compensating them, developing policies relating to people, and developing strategies to retain employees.

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external factors of HRM

globalization, healthcare costs, diversity, technology, changing demographics, layoffs

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today's HRM challenges

cost containment, technology, economy, workforce, ethics

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heredity

as much as 50 to 55 percent of personality traits may be inherited

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environmental influences on personality

family, group membership, life experiences

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Big Five personality factors

emotional stability, agreeableness, extraversion, conscientiousness, openness

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locus of control

degree to which individuals believe that they can control events effecting them. internal - life is controlled by their own actions external - life is controlled by fate or chance

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proactive personality

A dispositional tendency take personal initiative across a range of activities and situations

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emotions

complex patterns of feelings toward an object or person

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emotional intelligence

how well an individual handles oneself and others rather than how smart or capable the individual is in terms of technical skills

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self-awareness

recognizing one's emotions, strengths and limitations, and capabilities, and how these affect others

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social empathy

sensing what others need in order for them to develop

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self-motivation

being results oriented and pursuing goals beyond what is required

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social skills

the ability of an individual to influence others

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collectivism

focus on "we" versus "i", emphasis on belonging to an organization, avoid pointing out mistakes to save face

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individualism

non-conformists, emphasis on individual initiatives and achievement, everybody has a right to a private life and opinion

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high power distance

employees should be submissive to leaders, power holders are entitled to privileges and status, employees should follow chain of command

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high uncertainty avoidance

The uncertainty inherent in life is a threat. Rules and laws reduce uncertainty, Conflict and competition can and should therefore be avoided in favor of orderliness, there is need for consistency.

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masculinity vs femininity

M: men are assertive, material success is valued, work roles should be clear.

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F: men&women should be concerned with the quality of life, caring for others is valued, no distinction in work roles for men&women.

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long-term orientation

respect for work ethic, perseverance, sustained efforts toward results over time are valued, willingness to subordinate oneself for a broader societal purpose

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components of attitude

affective, cognitive, behavioral

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affective component

feeling, sentiments, moods and emotions about some specific person, idea, or object

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cognitive component

thoughts, opinions, knowledge, or information held by the individual about a specific person, idea, event, or object

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behavioral component

predisposition to act on a favorable or unfavorable evaluation to a specific person, idea, event, or object

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hope

involves a person's mental willpower (determination) and waypower (road map) to achieve goals

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Hope = mental willpower + waypower to achieve goals

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job satisfaction

reflects the extent to which individuals find fulfillment in their work

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organizational commitment

The strength of an employee's involvement in the organization and identification with it.

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the perceptual process

  • objects in the person's environment

  • observation

  • perceptual selection -perceptual organization

  • interpretation -response

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person perception

The process by which the individual attributes characteristics or traits to other people

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implicit personality theory

a person's beliefs about the relationships between another's physical characteristics and personality

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expatriates

employees who live and work outside of their home countries

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impression management

an attempt by an individual to manipulate or control the impressions that others form about them

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attribution process

the ways in which people come to understand the causes of their own and others' behavior

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antecedents

factors internal to the perceiver (info, beliefs, motivation)

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attributions

made by the perceiver (Perceived internal versus external causes of behavior)

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consequences

for the perceiver (behavior, feelings, expectations)

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attribution of external causes

-Consistency is low -Distinctiveness is high -Consensus is high

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attribution of internal causes

-Consistency is high -distinctiveness is low -consensus is low

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fundamental attribution error

the tendency to underestimate the influence of situational factors and to overestimate the influence of personal factors in evaluating someone else's behavior

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classical conditioning

process by which individuals learn to link the info from a neutral stimulus to a stimulus that causes a response

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operant conditioning

process by which individuals learn voluntary behavior

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contingency of reinforcement

the relationship between a behavior and the preceding and following environmental events that influence that behavior

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positive reinforcement

add a pleasant event

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punishment

add an unpleasant event

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extinction

remove a pleasant event

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negative reinforcement

remove an unpleasant event

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fixed interval

Reinforcer given after a given period of time

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fixed ratio

Reinforcer given aftera number of behaviors

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variable interval

Reinforcer given at random times

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variable ratio

Reinforcer given after a random number of behaviors

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social learning theory

knowledge acquisition through the mental processing of info by observing and imitating others

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5 dimensions of social learning/cognitive theory

symbolizing, forethought, vicarious learning, self-control, self-efficacy

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intrinsic motivation

comes from interest in and enjoyment of the work itself

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extrinsic motivation

comes form factors external to the work such as pay and other rewards

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performance formula

performance = ability x motivation x resources

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first level vs second level outcomes(expectancy theory)

1st- results of doing the job 2nd- pos/neg rewards produced by first level outcomes

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expectancy

the belief that a particular level of effort will be followed by a particular level of performance

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instrumentality

the relationship between first-level and second-level outcomes

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valence

preference for a particular second-level outcome

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expectancy theory

people are motivated to behave in ways that produce desired combinations of expected outcomes.

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strong motivation if: effort achieves good result result leads to reward reward is valued

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equity model

A motivation model focusing on an individual's feelings about how fairly he or she is treated in comparison with others.

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inputs-what an individual is contributing outcomes-what an individual receives from an exchange

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Job Characteristics Model

a job design model that relates the motivational properties of jobs to specific personal and organizational consequences of those properties

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involves: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, job feedback

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self-determination theory

proposes that people will be more intrinsically motivated when they have certain needs fulfilled and identifies three important psychological needs: autonomy, competence, and relatedness

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goals

future outcomes that individuals and groups desire and strive to achieve

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goal setting

the process of specifying desired outcomes toward which individuals, teams, departments, and organizations will strive and is intended to increase organizational efficiency and effectiveness

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SMART goals

specific, measurable, attainable, result-oriented, time bound

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Management by Objectives (MBO)

management system that uses goal difficulty and goal clarity as its foundation for motivating employees

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managers and employees jointly set goals for performance

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compensation plan

includes pay, healthcare, benefits

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compensation strategies

market compensation policy market plus market minus

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types of incentive plans

commission plans- An employee may or may not receive a salary but will be paid extra (e.g., a percentage for every sale made)

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bonus plans- Extra pay for meeting or beating some goal previously determined. Bonus plans can consist of monetary compensation, but also other forms such as time off or gift certificates.

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profit-sharing plans- Annual bonuses paid to employees based on the amount of profit the organization earned.

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stock options- When an employee is given the right to purchase company stock at a particular rate in time. Please note that a stock "option" is different from the actual giving of stock, since the option infers the employee will buy the stock at a set rate, obviously, usually cheaper than the going rate.

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