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Parts of the skeletal system

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Biology

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Parts of the skeletal system

Bones (skeleton)JointsCartilagesLigaments

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Two divisions of the skeletal system

Axial skeletonAppendicular skeleton

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Five primary Functions of the Skeletal System

SupportStorage of Minerals (calcium) and Lipids (yellow marrow)Blood Cell Production (red marrow)ProtectionLeverage and Motion

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Adult skeleton has ___ bones

206

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Two basic types of bone tissue

Compact boneSpongy bone

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Compact Bone

Hard

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Spongy Bone

Bone tissue that consists of an open network of struts and plates that resembles latticeworkInner layer of most bones and ends of epiphysis of long bones

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Bones are classified by

ShapeInternal tissue organizationBone markings (surface features

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marks)

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Six bone shapes

Flat bonesLong bonesIrregular bonesSutural bonesSesamoid bonesShort bones

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Sutural Bones

Small

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Irregular Bones

Have complex shapesEx: spinal vertebrae and pelvic bones

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Short bones

Small and thickEx: ankle and wrist bones

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Flat bones

Thin with parallel surfaces

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Flat bones are found in ___

skull

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Long bones

Long and thin

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Long bones are found in ___

arms

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Sesamoid bones

Small and flat

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Sesamoid bones develop inside ___

tendons near joints of knees

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Depressions or grooves are found along

bone surface

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Elevations or projections

Where tendons and ligaments attachAt articulations with other bones

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Tunnels

Where blood and nerves enter bone

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Structure of a long bone

DiaphysisEpiphysisMetaphysis

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Diaphysis

The shaftA heavy wall of compact bone

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Epiphysis

Wide part at each endArticulation with other bonesMostly spongy (cancellous) boneCovered with compact bone (cortex)

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Metaphysis

Where diaphysis and epiphysis meet

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Osteon (Haversian System)

A unit of bone

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Central (Haversian) canal

Run lengthwise in long bonesCarries blood vessels and nerves

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Perforating (Volkman's) canal

Canal perpendicular to the central canalCarries blood vessels and nerves

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Lacunae

Cavities containing bone cells (osteocytes)Arranged in concentric rings

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Lamellae

Rings around the central canalSites of lacunae

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Canaliculi

Allow for transportRadiate from the central canal to lacunae

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Yellow Bone Marrow

has adipose tissue (fat) that stores energy

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Red Bone Marrow

forms blood cells (hematopoiesis)

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Bone cells make up ___% of bone mass

2

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Four types of cells in bones

OsteocytesOsteoblastsOsteogenic cellsOsteoclasts

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Osteocytes

bone cells

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Osteoblasts

bone forming cells

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Osteogenic cells

stem cells

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Osteoclasts

Bone-destroying cells

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In embryos

the skeleton is primarily ___ cartilage

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During development

most hyaline cartilage is replaced by ___

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Cartilage remains in isolated areas:

Bridge of the noseParts of ribsJoints

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Human bones grow until about age ___

25

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Osteogenesis

Bone formation

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Ossification

The process of replacing other tissues with bone

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Calcification

The process of depositing calcium saltsOccurs during bone ossification and in other tissues

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Two main forms of ossification

Endochondral ossificationIntramembranous ossification

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Endochondral Ossification

Ossifies bones that originate as hyaline cartilageMost bones originate as hyaline cartilageThere are seven main steps in endochondral ossification

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Intramembranous (dermal) Ossification

Occurs in the dermisProduces dermal bones such as mandible (lower jaw) and clavicle (collarbone)

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Types of bone fractures

Closed (simple) fractureOpen (compound) fracture

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Closed (simple) fracture

Break that does not penetrate the skin

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Open (compound) fracture

Broken bone penetrates through the skin

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Types of Fractures

DisplacedEpiphysealCollesCompressionComminutedGreenstickTransverseSpiralPott's

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Transverse

break a bone shaft along its long axis

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Displaced

produce new and abnormal bone arrangements

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Compression

occur in vertebrae subjected to stress

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Spiral

produced by the twisting stresses along the length of the bone

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Epiphyseal

tend to occur where the bone matrix is undergoing calcification

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Comminuted

shatter the affected area into many fragments

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Greenstick

only one side of broken

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Colles

break in distal portion of the radius

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Pott's

occurs at ankle

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Repair of bone fractures

  1. Fracture hematoma formation2. Callus formation3. Spongy bone formation4. Compact bone formation

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Fracture hematoma formation

blood-filled swelling is formed

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Callus formation

break is splinted by fibrocartilage to form a callus

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Spongy bone formation

fibrocartilage callus is replaced by a bone callus

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Compact bone formation

bone callus is remodeled to form a permanent patch

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Osteoporosis

Severe bone lossAffects normal functionOver age 45

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Axial skeleton

Forms the longitudinal part of the bodyDivided into three parts

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Three parts of axial skeleton

SkullVertebral columnBony thorax

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Skull

Protects the brain

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Skull contains

22 bones8 cranial bones14 facial bones

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Cranial bones

form the braincase

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Facial bones

protect and support entrances to digestive and respiratory tracts

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Sinuses

Cavities that decrease the weight of the skullLine with mucous membranesProtect the entrances of the respiratory system

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Fetal skull

large compared to the infants total body lengthallows the brain to growconverts to bone within 24 months after birth

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3 parts of sternum

manubrium

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Fontanelles

fibrous membranes connecting the cranial bones

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Vertebrae

Separated by intervertebral discs

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Spinal curves

Cervical curveThoracic curveLumbar curveSacral curve

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Cervical curve

a secondary curve

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Thoracic curve

a primary curve

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Lumbar curve

a secondary curve

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it develops with the ability to stand.L1 - L5

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Sacral curve

a primary curve

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Coccyx

4 fused vertebrae

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Bony thorax

Forms a cage to protect major organsMade up of three parts

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Three parts that make up the bony thorax

SternumRibsThoracic vertebrae

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Appendicular Skeleton

126 bonesAllows humans to move and manipulate objectsIncludes all bones besides axial skeleton

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The supportive girdles

pectoralpelvic

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Pectoral (shoulder) girdle

Clavicle (collarbone)Scapula (shoulder blade)

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Clavicle and scapula allow ___

Allows the upper limb to have exceptionally free movement

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The arm is formed by ___

Humerus

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Forearm is formed by ___

UlnaRadius

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Hand is formed by

Carpals (wrist)Metacarpals (palm)Phalanges (fingers)

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Pelvic Girdle

Hip bonesThe total weight of the upper body rests on the pelvisProtects several organs

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Pelvic Girdle is composed of three pair of fused bones

IliumIschiumPubic bone

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Organs that the pelvic girdle protects

Reproductive organsUrinary bladderPart of the large intestine

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The thigh has ___

Femur

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