Pysch 1115: Chapters 1, 2 + Prologue

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What is Psychology

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Midterm 1

101 Terms

1

What is Psychology

Empirical Science

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2

William Wundt

Developed the first measures of reaction times to stimuli in the first psychology labratory

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3

Charles Darwin

Scientist known for his theory of evolution through natural selection

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Ivan Pavlov

Russian physiologist known for classical conditioning. He experimented with dogs, using a bell before feeding them. The dogs learned to associate the bell with food and would salivate at the sound. This led to the discovery of conditioned reflexes and influenced behaviorism

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Edward Titchener

Founder of Structuralism. Focused on analyzing the structure of the mind through introspection. Influenced by Wundt.

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William James

Father of American psychology, known for functionalism, emphasized consciousness and mental processes, emphasized individual experience and adaptation.

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Mary Whiton Calkins

Pioneer in psychology, first female APA president, denied PhD by Harvard but completed all requirements. Developed paired-associate technique to study memory.

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Margaret Floy Washburn

First female psychologist to earn a PhD in the United States. Pioneered research on animal behavior and sensory perception, second female president of APA.

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Sigmund Freud

Austrian psychologist known for psychoanalysis. Developed theories on the unconscious mind, psychosexual development, and defense mechanisms

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John B. Watson

Psychologist who founded behaviorism. Emphasized observable behavior and rejected studying the mind. Conducted famous "Little Albert" experiment.

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B.F. Skinner

A behaviorist who believed behavior is influenced by consequences. He used reinforcement to modify behavior and created the "Skinner box" for studying animal behavior.

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Carl Rogers

Psychologist known for humanistic therapy, focusing on empathy, unconditional positive regard, and self-actualization

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Abraham Maslow

Psychologist known for his hierarchy of needs theory, which suggests that individuals have a pyramid of needs ranging from basic physiological needs to self-actualization.

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Jean Piaget

Experimentally studies the development of infant and children’s explicit cognitive abilities in controlled settings

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Noam Chomsky

Linguist and philosopher known for his theory of generative grammar. Argued that language is innate to humans and not solely learned.

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Brenda Milner.

Canadian neuropsychologist known for groundbreaking work in memory and brain study. Researched patient H.M., showing hippocampus's role in memory formation. Pioneer in cognitive neuroscience, advancing understanding of memory and brain function.

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Basic Research

Scientific investigation to expand knowledge and understanding in a specific field. Conducted to explore theories, test hypotheses, and generate new ideas. Typically done in academic or research institutions, it emphasizes acquiring fundamental knowledge without immediate practical use.

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Applied Research

Applied research aims to solve real-world problems by applying scientific knowledge. It focuses on practical solutions and informing decision-making processes. It involves collecting and analyzing data to improve existing practices and address specific issues.

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Hindsight Bias

The tendency to perceive past events as being more predictable than they actually were

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Overconfidence Bias

Tendency to have excessive confidence in one's abilities, knowledge, or judgments, leading to overestimating performance and underestimating risks or errors.

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Operational Definition

A concise explanation of how variables are measured or observed in a scientific study, ensuring objective and replicable results. It eliminates ambiguity and maintains consistency in research methodology.

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Descriptive Research

Detailed, systematic recording of information on a person or group

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Independent Variable

The factor that is manipulated or changed by the researcher in an experiment, to observe its effect on the dependent variable

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Dependant Variable

The variable in an experiment that is measured or observed. It is affected by the independent variable and used to determine the outcome or results of the experiment

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Confounding Variable

Other factors that could affect results

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Observer Bias

Tendency to distort observations based on personal beliefs or expectations. Can lead to inaccurate data collection and analysis.

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Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive statistics summarize and describe data using measures like mean, median, mode, range, and standard deviation. They provide a concise summary of a dataset's main characteristics, including central tendency, variability, and distribution.

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Mode

Mode

A measure of central tendency that represents the most frequently occurring value in a dataset.

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Mean

A measure of central tendency that represents the average value of a set of numbers. It is calculated by summing all the values and dividing by the total number of values.

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Range

The difference between the highest and lowest values in a data set. It measures the spread or variability of the data.

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Standard Deviation

Standard deviation is a measure of data dispersion from the mean. It shows how much the values differ from the average. Higher standard deviation means more variability, while lower standard deviation means less variability

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Inferential Statistics

Statistical methods used to draw conclusions about a population based on sample data. It helps researchers determine if their findings can be generalized.

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Normal Distribution

A symmetric, bell-shaped probability distribution used in statistics to model random variables based on mean and standard deviation.

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Null Hypothesis

That there is no real difference between the experimental and control group

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Statistical Significance

The likelihood that observed differences or relationships in data are not due to chance.

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Nervous System Processes

Detection, Integration, Transmission

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Neurons

Cells in the nervous system that transmit information. They have a cell body, dendrites to receive signals, and an axon to send signals. Communication occurs through electrical impulses and neurotransmitters

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Dendrites

Branch-like structures on a neuron that receive signals from other neurons and transmit them towards the cell body.

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Axon

A neuron's long, slender projection that carries electrical signals away from the cell body, enabling communication between neurons

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Myelin Sheath

A fatty layer that wraps around nerve fibers, speeding up the transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system.

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Axon Terminals

A neuron's end forms synapses with other neurons or muscle cells to transmit electrical signals (action potentials).

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Cell Body (Soma)

Part of a neuron that contains the nucleus and other organelles. It integrates incoming signals and generates electrical impulses.

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Glia Cells

Supportive cells in the nervous system that protect and assist neurons. They help maintain structure, transmit signals, and support brain and spinal cord function.

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Inside the neuron

Negatively charged proteins and potassium ions (K+)

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Outside the neuron

Positively charged particles (sodium ions, (Na+)

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Resting Potential

Resting membrane potential is the electrical charge across a neuron's membrane. It is due to uneven ion distribution inside and outside the cell.

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Action Potential

An electrical signal travels down the neuron's axon, generated by ion movement across the cell membrane. Enables communication between neurons, transmitting information throughout the nervous system

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Threshold

The electrical potential at which voltage gated Na+ channels open up; approximately -55mv

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Depolarization

Change in charge when membrane potential becomes less negative, increasing action potential likelihood.

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Repoloarization

The process of restoring the cell's resting state after depolarization involves the movement of potassium ions out of the cell, which restores the negative charge inside.

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Refractory period

The period of time after a neuron fires an action potential, during which it is temporarily unable to fire another action potential

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Multiple Sclerosis

Immune system attacking the myelin sheath, results in a gradual degradation of the entire nervous system

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Synapse

Where the axon terminal of the presynaptic neuron connects to a postsynaptic neuron usually on its dendrite

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Receptors

Proteins on cell surfaces that detect and respond to molecules, triggering a cellular response

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Glutamate

Neurotransmitter responsible for excitatory signaling in the brain. Plays a crucial role in learning, memory, and overall brain function.

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GABA

Neurotransmitter that inhibits brain activity, reducing anxiety and promoting relaxation. Essential for maintaining a balanced mood and preventing overexcitability.

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Dopamine

Neurotransmitter linked to movement, learning and natural rewards

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Serotonin

Neurotransmitter for sleep, hunger, mood and arousal

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Endorphins

Neurotransmitter for pain and mood

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Acetylcholine

Main excitatory transmitter at muscles, learning and memory in brain

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Agonists

Substances that increase the effects of a naturally occuring neurotransmitter

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Antagonists

Substances that decrease the effects of a naturally occuring neurotransmitter

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Sensory Neurons

Type of neurons responsible for transmitting sensory information from the sensory organs to the central nervous system

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Interneurons

Neurons that transmit signals between sensory and motor neurons. Found in the central nervous system. Help coordinate and integrate information.

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Motorneurons

Specialized neurons that transmit signals from the central nervous system to muscles or glands, enabling voluntary and involuntary movements and bodily functions.

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Central Nervous System

Brain and spinal cord

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Peripheral Nervous System

The rest of the body

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Somatic Nervous System

Responsible for detecting sensory input and controlling skeletal muscles which are responsible for movement

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Autonomic Nervous System

Responsible for controlling smooth muscle on glands and internal organs

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Sympathetic System

Responds to arousing stimuli which can be dangerous (like encountering a hungry bear)

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Parasympathetic System

Counters the arousing effects of sympathetic, calming us down

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Hormones

Essential for regulation of nutrients and sexual development and responses, and widespread behavioural states like fight or flight responses

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Hypothalamus

Regulates homeostasis, controls body temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep. Produces hormones that influence pituitary gland

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Pituitary Gland

A small gland located at the base of the brain that produces and releases hormones that regulate various bodily functions, such as growth, metabolism, and reproduction

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Phrenology (Franz Joseph Gall)

Study of the bumps on the skull to determine personality traits and mental abilities. Pseudoscience popular in the 19th century.

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Amgydala

Part of the limbic system involved in processing emotions, especially fear and aggression. Also plays a role in memory formation and decision-making.

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Electrodes

Thin probes can be placed in the brain. Listen to individual cells nearby and detect action potentials as they happen

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Electrocorticogram

Net of electrodes placed over the human brain. Allows recording. of a area during human brain surgery

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Lesion

A damaged or destroyed area of brain tissue

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Optogenetics

Artificially inserted ion channels that open in response to light

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Chemogenetics

Artificially inserted ion channels that open in response to designer drugs that only target that receptor

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Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)

Electromagnetic pulse to delivered to a target brain region. Either active or suppress a neural activity

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Electroencephalogram (EEG)

Recording the electrical waves on the scalp generated by brain in real time

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Magnetoencephalogram (MEG)

Recording the magnetic fields on the scalp of the brain as it changed in real time

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Grey Matter

Parts of the brain with mostly neruons. Looks dark

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White Matter

Part with mostly myelinated axons that connect different regions. Looks bright

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

Detects slight differences in magnetic properties of tissue

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Structural MRI

Used to capture static pictures of the brain’s anatomy. Often just called MRI

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Diffusion Spectrum Imaging

A type of structural image. Shows us where large white matter tracts are by looking at the water flow along fatty myelin

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Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)

Reveals changes in blood flow in the brain associated with neural activity

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Positiron Emission Tomography (PET)

Reveals where radioactively labeled substances are being used in the brain

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Brainstem

The brainstem regulates essential functions like breathing, heart rate, and consciousness. It includes the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata

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Medulla

Lower part of the brainstem. Controls essential functions like heartbeat and breathing. Damage leads to death due to loss of essential function

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Pons

Upper part of brainstem. Contains part of the reticular formation and links cerebellum to the rest of the brain. Controls sleep and coordinates movement.

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Reticular Formation

Found inside the brainstem. Collection arousal and sleep-wake cycle. Damage to this region can result in comas.

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Cerebellum

Large collection of neurons just behind the brainstem. Major role in coordinating movement, learning, language and attention.

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Thalamus

Major hub that receives almost all incoming sensory information

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Amygdala

Plays a role in emotional processing and allows us to form emotional memories attaching to emotional responses

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Hippocampus

Responsible for memories of events as well as ability to navigate environment

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Hypothalamus

The brain region responsible for regulating body temperature, hunger, thirst, sleep-wake cycles, hormone release from the pituitary gland, and emotions/sexual behavior

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