unit 6 : memory and learning

studied byStudied by 0 people
0.0(0)
get a hint
hint

definition of learning

1 / 115

Tags and Description

116 Terms

1

definition of learning

acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors

New cards
2

types of learning

associative, observational, insight

New cards
3

associative learning + ex

connects events that happen in a sequence - from past experience, you know that not studying leads to bad grades

New cards
4

observational learning + ex

learn through observation - watching someone scream at a spider and you’ll learn that you’re supposed to be scared of them

New cards
5

insight learning + ex

learning through self reflection and thoughts - epiphany

New cards
6

describe behaviorism + experiment

nurture focus, objectivity and empiricism, measurable behaviors, learning through repetitive exposures - dog experiment

New cards
7

classical conditioning

associating 2+ stimuli to anticipate events

New cards
8

stimulus + where in the brain

event / situation that evokes response - lower brain regions

New cards
9

neutral stimulus (NS) + ex from dog experiment

stimulus that doesn’t result in response before training - bell

New cards
10

unconditioned stimulus (US) + ex from dog experiment

stimulus that automatically triggers response - food in mouth

New cards
11

unconditioned response (UR) + ex from dog experiment

natural response to US (salivation)

New cards
12

conditioned stimulus (CS) + ex from dog experiment

the irrelevant stimulus that has been changed - same as NS

New cards
13

conditioned response (CR) + ex from dog experiment

learned response to the stimulus - salivation

New cards
14

higher order conditioning

neutral stimulus can become a conditioned stimulus when paired with already established conditioning

New cards
15

acquisition

initial phase of associating neutral stimulus with unconditioned stimulus

New cards
16

extinction

less response to conditioned response

New cards
17

spontaneous recovery

reappearance of weakened CR

New cards
18

generalization + ex

similar stimulus = similar response, little albert afraid of all white, furry things

New cards
19

habituation

organism’s decreasing response to repetitive stimulus, getting bored with stimulus

New cards
20

stimulus discrimination + ex

distinguish between stimulus, hand bell sound vs gong

New cards
21

example of classical conditioning in humans

little albert

New cards
22

what is operant conditioning?

learning where behavior is influenced by reinforcers or punishers

New cards
23

punishers increase or decrease a behavior

decrease

New cards
24

reinforcers increase or decrease a behavior

increase

New cards
25

thorndike’s law of effect

behaviors

New cards
26

positive reinforcement + ex

strengthen response by adding good stimulus - food, attention

New cards
27

negative reinforcement + ex

strengthens response by removed bad or not liked stimulus - alarms, stopping a kid form whining

New cards
28

primary reinforcement

helps us survive - warmth, food

New cards
29

condition / secondary reinforcements

doesn’t mean anything in regards to survival but we value - praise, attention

New cards
30

positive punishment + ex

addition of not liked stimulus - spanking, parking ticket

New cards
31

negative punishment + ex

take away wanted stimulus - time out, revoked driver’s license

New cards
32

what is loss aversion

discomfort in losing something rather than gaining - very effective

New cards
33

continuous reinforcement

reinforcing response every time

New cards
34

partial (intermittent) reinforcement

reinforcing response part of the time - slower acquisition but greater resistance to extinction

New cards
35

fixed ratio schedule (FR) + ex

reinforce response only after a certain number of responses - rat pressing bar 10 times to get 1 food pellet

New cards
36

variable ratio schedule (VR) + ex

reinforces response after unpredictable number of responses - gambling and slot machines

New cards
37

fixed interval schedule (FI)

reinforces a response after specific time elapsed - dog hanging around food bowl near feeding time

New cards
38

variable interval schedule (VI)

reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals - checking email or phone

New cards
39

intrinsic motivation

desire to preform a behavior for its own sake or reaching higher potential - doing something just because you enjoy it

New cards
40

extrinsic motivation

desire to perform behavior to receive a reward or avoid punishment - tells conditioned person that the only reason it’s worth doing is for reward / avoid punishment

New cards
41

drive reduction theory

motivation that arises from a need - internal stimulus or cue

New cards
42

observational learning

learning by observing and imitating - role model

New cards
43

mirror neurons

allow learning and imitation from observation - babies mimic mouth shapes to learn to talk

New cards
44

explain the bobo doll experiment

children watched adults play with a bobo doll and then were told to play - they imitated the language and actions of the adult

New cards
45

achievement tests

measure what you’ve learned - unit tests, ap exams

New cards
46

aptitude tests

measure ability - sat, iq

New cards
47

binet simon intelligence scale

deals with mental age

New cards
48

8 intelligence types - howard gardner

linguistic, logical/mathematical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, music, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist

New cards
49

triarchic - sternberg’s intelligence

componential (analytical), experimental (creative), practical (street smarts)

New cards
50

fluid intelligence

capacity to reason and solve problems without knowledge from the past - id patterns and relationships

New cards
51

crystallized intelligence

capacity to use skills, knowledge, and experience

New cards
52

divergent thinking

generates creative ideas, original, flexible, laterally not lineral

New cards
53

functional fixedness

only think of object’s most common use - limited creativity and divergent thinking

New cards
54

mental set

barrier to problem solving - based on solutions that have worked in past

New cards
55

heuristic

mental shortcut, bottom up, not always accurate

New cards
56

algorithm

step by step, accurate, top down

New cards
57

prototype + ex

mental image associated with best example of concept / category - say bird and you think of sparrow, not ostrich

New cards
58

representativeness heuristic

judge something based on how it matches your prototype - confirmation bias

New cards
59

availability heuristic

judge something based on how available examples are in memory

New cards
60

do we remember nicer or scarier things better?

scarier

New cards
61

anchoring heuristic

tendency to rely on 1 piece of info, convenience

New cards
62

linguistics is the study of

language - written and spoken

New cards
63

grammar

set of rules governing how symbols are used to form meaningful expressions

New cards
64

syntax

sets forth a specific order for grammatical elements

New cards
65

semantics + ex

understanding the meaning of language - slang, metaphors

New cards
66

who argued for nature in language development and what was his main idea?

noam chomsky - universal grammar

New cards
67

who argued for nature in language development and what was his main idea?

bf skinner

New cards
68

operant learning

association (sight of thing with sound of word), imitation (of synonyms), reinforcement

New cards
69

encoding

processing info into the memory system

New cards
70

storage

keeping encoded info over time

New cards
71

retrieval

getting info out of storage

New cards
72

sensory memroy

sensory information in the memory system

New cards
73

working memory

bits of info kept in mind for cognitive tasks - remembering phone numbers

New cards
74

how many units of info can we hold in working memory?

7-10

New cards
75

effortful processing

encoding that requires conscious effort, like rehearsal of facts

New cards
76

explicit memories

memory of facts and experiences - conscious, prospective

New cards
77

automatic processing

unconscious encoding of information - breaks into space, time, and frequency

New cards
78

implicit memories

procedural memory, muscle memory

New cards
79

latent learning

learning happens but isn’t apparent until there’s a reason to use it

New cards
80

shallow processing

sensory analysis, not looking for symbolism

New cards
81

deep processing

meaningful analysis, looking for meanings and symbolism

New cards
82

mnemonics

memory aids - ROY G BIV

New cards
83

imagery

visualization of info

New cards
84

chunking

organize numbers into manageable chunks

New cards
85

semantic encoding

encoding through emotional equalities

New cards
86

learning information that’s interesting to you takes ?/? the effort

1/10

New cards
87

what parts of the brain are involved in memory and what do they deal with

hippocampus (conscious memories), cerebellum (unconscious), basal ganglia (procedural), amygdala (emotion)

New cards
88

flashbulb memory

clear memory of emotionally significant event

New cards
89

what % of adults can tell where they were on 9/11

95%

New cards
90

how does dopamine activation influence learning

it tells the brain that the information being taken in is important, more dopamine = more attention = more retention

New cards
91

what kind of effect does rapidly stimulation certain memory circuits have on neurons

increases their sensitivity and allows for more connecting

New cards
92

describe recall + ec

retrieve info learned earlier - fill in blank test

New cards
93

recognition + ex

id items rather than know - multiple choice

New cards
94

relearning + ex

amount of time saved after relearning material

New cards
95

reconsolidation + ex

long term memory retrieved and is susceptible to manipulation

New cards
96

context dependent memory

putting yourself back into context where you experienced something - retracing steps to find keys

New cards
97

mood congruent memory

tendency to remember experiences that match current emotion

New cards
98

proactive interference

disruptive effect that earlier knowledge has on ability to recall new info

New cards
99

retroactive interference

basically rewriting old memories

New cards
100

what is an effect of chronic stress

pruned neural connections

New cards

Explore top notes

note Note
studied byStudied by 3 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 3930 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(27)
note Note
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 1 person
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 6 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
note Note
studied byStudied by 20 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
note Note
studied byStudied by 2858 people
Updated ... ago
4.8 Stars(10)

Explore top flashcards

flashcards Flashcard32 terms
studied byStudied by 7 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard165 terms
studied byStudied by 71 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard47 terms
studied byStudied by 58 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard45 terms
studied byStudied by 76 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(2)
flashcards Flashcard65 terms
studied byStudied by 10 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard56 terms
studied byStudied by 4 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard40 terms
studied byStudied by 36 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)
flashcards Flashcard60 terms
studied byStudied by 63 people
Updated ... ago
5.0 Stars(1)