Leadership and Organizational Behavior Test 1

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Organizations

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Tags and Description

Chapters 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6

124 Terms

1

Organizations

social structures created by individuals to support the collaborative pursuit of specific goals

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2

Organizational behavior (OB)

explaining human behavior in organizations, which includes examining the behavior of individuals, groups, or all the members of an organization as a whole

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3

Technical skills

expertise in a particular task or field

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4

Relational skills

talents for getting along with and motivating people.

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5

Conceptual skills

the capability to understand complex issues and underlying causes and to solve problems with broad implications

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6

Conventional OB

emphasizes material or financial well-being and the interests of a narrow range of stakeholders in the immediate future.

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7

Sustainable OB

emphasizes multiple forms of well-being (i.e., financial, social, ecological, spiritual) and the interests of a broad range of stakeholders in the immediate as well as distant future

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8

Virtue theory

focuses on character and the ways in which people practice and facilitate the practice of virtues in community, thereby facilitating happiness

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9

Ideal types

fundamental models or theoretical extremes

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10

Critical thinking

involves actively questioning and evaluating assumptions and information

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11

Management

the process of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling human and other organizational resources towards the achievement of organizational goals

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12

Practical wisdom (prudence)

exercising foresight, reason, and discretion to achieve what is good for the community

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13

Courage

the willingness to take action to do what is good regardless of personal consequences

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14

Self-control

a person’s emotional regulation and ability to overcome impulsive actions and greed

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15

Justice

a sense of “fairness” that ensures that everyone connected with an organization gets his or her due

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16

Scientific management

focuses on analyzing and improving the efficiency of work processes

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17

Human relations

focuses on how the social environment of work influences attitudes and behavior

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18

Hawthorne effect

an improvement in work productivity resulting from people receiving attention from observers

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19

Systems theory

highlights the complex interdependences between individuals, features of organizations, and the broader organizational context

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20

Institutionalization

occurs when organizational practices or rules are accepted and perpetuated without regard to instrumental rationality

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21

Social construction

the idea that what we perceive to be real is influenced by the social environment

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22

Stakeholder

any group within or outside the organization that is directly affected by the organization and has a stake in its performance

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23

Organization-specific responsibility (OSR)

the responsibility of organizations to focus on the organization's owners and their financial interests

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24

Corporate social responsibility (CSR)

is the responsibility of organizations to act in ways that protect and improve the welfare of multiple stakeholders

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25

Natural environment

composed of all living and nonliving things that have not been created by human technology or human activity

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26

Externalities

positive or negative effects on others or society not accounted for in the prices of a firm's goods or services

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27

Greenwashing

deliberately using misleading information in order to present a false image of ecological responsibility

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28

Sustainable development

development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs

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29

Globalization

the increased interdependence and integration among people and organizations around the world

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30

Multinational company (MNC)

an organization that receives more than 25 percent of its total sales revenue from outside its home country

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31

Polycentrism

an assumption that members in a host country know the best way to manage an organization in their country

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32

Ethnocentrism

the assumption that members of one's own home country offer the best way to manage in a host country

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33

Egalicentrism

the assumption that people from different cultures working together in a manner characterized by two-way, give-and-take communication fosters deeper mutual understanding, community, and new insights

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34

National culture

the shared values, beliefs, knowledge, and general patterns of behavior that characterize a country's citizens

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35

Hofstede's Five Dimensions of National Culture

  1. Individualism

  2. Materialism

  3. Time Orientation

  4. Power Distance

  5. Uncertainty Avoidance

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36

Individualism

makes individuality and individual rights paramount and encourages people to act in their own self-interest

Members of these cultures tend to be motivated by opportunities to achieve personal gain and to look out for themselves or immediate family

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37

Materialism

place high value on assertiveness and achievements such as better paying jobs, material possessions, and money

these cultures tend to be motivated by competition for extrinsic rewards—for example, higher salaries, bonuses, and opportunities to be number 1

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38

Time Orientation

short term view vs long term perspective

i. e. living for the present or considering the future

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39

Power Distance

emphasis placed on power differences/deference to authority

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40

Uncertainty Avoidance

emphasis on predictable rules and regulations over ambiguity and risk

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41

Diversity

a state of having or being composed of differing attributes

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42

Social categorization theory

proposes that we use characteristics to categorize others into groups, and this shapes our attitudes and behavior toward others

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43

Stereotypes

general perceptions about a group of people with similar characteristics

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44

Unconscious biases

stereotypes that are triggered automatically without awareness

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45

Abilities

innate capabilities to perform a specific task

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46

Personality

the unique and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, thoughts, and emotions shown by individuals

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47

The Big Five Personality Traits

  1. Extraversion

  2. Agreeableness

  3. Conscientiousness

  4. Openness to Experience

  5. Emotional Stability

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48

Extraversion

personality trait associated with being sociable, talkative, assertive, and adventurous

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49

Agreeableness

personality trait associated with being good-natured, cooperative, trustful, and not jealous

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50

Conscientiousness

personality trait associated with being achievement oriented, responsible, persevering, and dependable

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51

Openness to Experience

personality trait associated with being intellectual, original, imaginative, and cultured

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52

Emotional Stability

personality trait associated with being calm, placid, poised, and not neurotic

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53

Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)

work behavior that goes above and beyond normal role or job expectations to help others or benefit the organization

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54

Negative affect

describes a person who is generally angry, anxious, and pessimistic

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55

Positive affect

describes a person who is generally happy, enthused, and optimistic

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56

Myers–Briggs type indicator (MBTI)

a personality inventory based on Carl Jung’s work on psychological types

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57

Core self-evaluation

a broad trait that integrates an individual’s sense of self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, level of emotional stability, and locus of control

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58

Locus of control

a person’s consistent belief about the sources of success and failure

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59

Self-esteem

an individual’s self-evaluation of worth

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60

Self-efficacy

a person’s belief that he or she will be able to complete a task successfully

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61

Generalized self-efficacy

a person’s belief or confidence in his or her capability to cope with and perform in a variety of situations

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62

Beliefs

ideas or opinions we hold to be true

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63

Theory X

managers assume people are inherently lazy, dislike work, will avoid working hard unless forced to do so, and prefer to be directed rather than accepting responsibility

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64

Theory Y

managers assume people are inherently motivated to work and will feel unfulfilled if they do not have the opportunity to work and make a contribution to society

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65

Theory Z

the belief that people like to be members of a group and will work most productively in stable groups

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66

Values

a set of personal tenets that guide a person’s actions in evaluating and adapting to his or her world

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67

terminal values

related to desirable ends (what a person values achieving in life)

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68

instrumental values

desirable means to achieve end states

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69

States

dynamic conditions of a person evident in what he or she thinks, feels, or acts

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70

Ethics

a set of principles or standards that differentiate right from wrong

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71

Moral development

the state or level of a person’s moral reasoning

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72

Moral point of view

a framework of values we use to develop our internally consistent and logically justified principles and standards of right and wrong

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73

Consequentialist theory

considers the consequences of an action in determining what is ethical

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74

Utilitarianism

a moral philosophy that holds that ethical managers strive to produce “the greatest good for the greatest number”

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75

Egoism

a moral philosophy based on what “benefits me the most”

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76

Virtues

good ways of acting that are noble or have value regardless of the end result or consequences

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77

Sustaincentrism

a perspective promoting balance between the human and ecological concerns in organizational endeavors

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78

Ethical climate

describes the informal shared perceptions of what are appropriate practices and procedures

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79

Ethical culture

consists of the formal and informal systems aimed at influencing the ethical behavior of organizational members

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80

Code of ethics

a formal written statement of an organization’s primary values and the ethical rules it expects its members to follow

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81

Bottom-line mentality

an unbalanced pursuit of a single goal or outcome to the neglect of competing goals or priorities

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82

Attitudes

summary evaluations of a particular object or person

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83

ABC framework

framework of attitudes includes affect, behavioral intentions, and cognitions

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84

Job satisfaction

a person’s general attitude toward his or her job or job experiences

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85

Job involvement

the extent to which a person thinks about, is immersed in, and is concerned about his or her job

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86

Commitments

attachments or bonds to people, actions, or organizations

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87

Organizational commitment

an attachment or bond to a particular organization

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88

Perceptions

the subjective interpretations we give to information and messages we receive from sensory inputs

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89

Attributions

people’s explanations of the causes of behaviors or performance

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90

Impression management

an actor’s active attempt to limit or influence the information the perceiver receives

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91

workplace commitment originates from three main sources:

  1. Attitudes (affective commitments—I want to)

  2. Obligations (normative commitments—I ought to)

  3. Limited alternatives (continuance commitments—I have to)

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92

Representativeness

assessing something based on its similarity to a typical (representative) person or experience instead of the unique characteristics of the current situation

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93

Anchoring and adjustment

failing to sufficiently adjust a judgment from an initial impression (an anchor), even in the face of contrary evidence

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94

Halo/horn effects

using one piece of known information—good or bad—to influence general perceptions

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95

Availability

relying on memorable information—dramatic or recent—to make judgments

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96

Selective perception

screening out information that contradicts an existing perception

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97

Fundamental attribution error

attributing the source of another’s behavior or performance to personal factors instead of to the situation

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98

Cognitive dissonance

the uncomfortable mental state we experience if a current perception, belief, or behavior conflicts with a past perception, deeply held belief, or previous behavior

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99

Emotions

affective states that arise in response to information or messages a person receives from specific sensory inputs

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100

Emotional labor

a term given to the display and management of appropriate emotion as part of fulfilling job responsibilities

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