Human Physiology Exam 2 Review

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3 types of muscles

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3 types of muscles

skeletal, cardiac, smooth

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skeletal muscle histology

large, multinucleate, striated, somatic control

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cardiac muscle histology

middle sized, uni-nucleate, striated, branched, ANS control

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smooth muscle histology

small, uni-nucleate, non-striated, ANS control

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muscle cell

muscle fiber

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cell membrane

sarcolemma

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cytoplasm

sarcoplasm

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ER

sarcoplasmic reticulum

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sarcomete

smallest unit of contractile muscle fiber

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T-tubule

extension of sarcolemma that brings AP into muscle fiber

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sarcoplasmic reticulum stores

calcium

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actin is ___ filament

thin

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myosin is ___ filament

thick

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what causes sarcomere to shorten?

actin and myosin sliding together

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titin

responsible for passive tension in muscle and recoil

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myosin heads have

ATPases

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hinge region

part of myosin that allows it to pivot from 45 to 90 degrees

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Z disk

actin filaments attached

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M line

myosin anchor point

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I band

only actin

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H zone

only myosin

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A band

anywhere that has myosin

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during contraction ____ get pulled toward each other

Z lines

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do the length of myosin and actin change?

no, only overlap

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during contraction the ___ and ___ shorten while the ___ stays the same

I band, H zone, A band

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Contraction cycle step 1

actin and myosin bind in rigor state, no ATP

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Contraction cycle step 2

ATP binds to myosin, myosin dissociates from actin

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Contraction cycle step 3

ATPase hydrolyzes ATP into ADP and Pi

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Contraction cycle step 4

Myosin swings and weakly binds to new actin

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Contraction cycle step 5

power-stroke, Pi release and myosin pulls actin towards it

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Contraction cycle step 6

ADP releases, back to rigor state

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skeletal muscle contraction calcium step 1

calcium released from sarcoplasmic reticulum

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skeletal muscle contraction calcium step 2

calcium binds to troponin

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skeletal muscle contraction calcium step 3

calcium-troponin moves tropomyosin away from actin-myosin binding site

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skeletal muscle contraction calcium step 4

calcium ATPase pumps calcium back into sarcoplasmic reticulum

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skeletal muscle contraction calcium step 5

calcium and troponin unbind and tropomyosin returns to original position

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skeletal muscle cell depolarization

somatic motor neuron releases Ach and sodium entry causes action potential

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is there a delay between action potential firing and contraction?

yes

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motor unit

motor neuron and the muscle fibers it innervates

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one motor neuron can innervate ___ muscle fiber(s)

many

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each muscle fiber is innervated by ___ motor neuron(s)

only one

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sources of energy for contraction (4)

free ATP, creatine, glycolysis, oxidative phosphorylation

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free ATP produces ___

8 twitches

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creatine phosphate makes enough ATP to last for

15 seconds

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glycolysis ___ require oxygen and produces ___ ATP

does not, 2

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oxidative phosphorylation ___ require oxygen and produces ___ ATP

does, 28-30

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levels of contraction (3)

twitch, unfused tetanus, fused tetanus

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muscle tension increases by

increasing frequency of stimulation

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isotonic

muscle moves load and shortens

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isometric

muscle tension and load balance, no change in length

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lengthening

load greater than muscle tension, muscle lengthens despite contraction

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lengthening (elastic elements)

sarcomere contracts but elastic elements stretch more

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types of muscle contraction (3)

slow oxidative, fast oxidative, fast glycolytic

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slow oxidative

slow, barely fatigue, little tension, dark red

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fast oxidative

fast, fatigue over time, decent tension, red

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fast glycolytic

fast, quickly fatigue, high tension, pale

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smooth muscle single unit

cells connected by gap junctions, contract together

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smooth muscle multi unit

cells each connected to axon and varicosities

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smooth muscle contraction type A

generally at rest, contracts, returns to rest

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smooth muscle contraction type B

cycle of contraction and relaxation

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smooth muscle contraction type C

generally contracted, relaxes, returns to contraction

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smooth muscle contraction type D

always slightly contracted, fluctuates

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smooth muscle contraction calcium step 1

calcium enters from interstitial fluid

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smooth muscle contraction calcium step 2

calcium binds to calmodulin and activates myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)

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smooth muscle contraction calcium step 3

MLCK phosphorylates myosin heads to increase myosin ATPase activity

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smooth muscle contraction calcium step 4

calcium pumped back into sarcoplasmic reticulum

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smooth muscle contraction calcium step 5

calcium and calmodulin unbind, stopping MLCK

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tension develops slowest in ___ muscle

smooth

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vascular system purpose

deliver oxygen and nutrients and remove waste

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average blood volume

5.5 liters

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blood composition

45% hematocrit, 1% leukocytes, 55% plasma

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red blood cell count

5 million per micro liter

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white blood cell count

thousands

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red blood cells have no

nucleus or ribosomes

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erythropoeitin

hormone from kidney that stimulates red blood cell production

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leukocytes are ____ than erythrocytes but there are ____

larger, fewer

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leukocyte

white blood cell

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erythrocytes

red blood cell

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right heart pumps to

pulmonary system (lungs)

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left heart pumps to

rest of body (tissues)

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flow is ___ at every level

the same

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velocity of blood is determined by the

total cross sectional area

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capillaries have the ___ velocity

lowest

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flow equation

change in pressure / resistance

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blood flows along pressure gradient

high to low pressure

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pericardium

sac of fluid that surrounds heart

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valve energy source

none, pressure driven

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mitral valve function

prevent blood from flowing into atrium from ventricle

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semilunar valve function

prevent blood from flowing into ventricle from aorta or pulmonary artery

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intercalated disks contain

desmosomes (physical connection) and gap junctions (electrical connection)

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types of cardiac cells

contractile (myosin), autorhythmic (pacemaker)

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calcium induced calcium release

calcium from voltage gated calcium channel releases calcium from sarcoplasmic reticulum

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cardiac muscle contraction calcium step 1

action potential enters t-tubule and opens voltage gated calcium channel

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cardiac muscle contraction calcium step 2

calcium induced calcium release through ryanodine receptors

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cardiac muscle contraction calcium step 3

calcium sparks sum to calcium signal

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cardiac muscle contraction calcium step 4

calcium binds to troponin and causes contraction

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cardiac muscle contraction calcium step 5

calcium pumped back into sarcoplasmic reticulum and unbinds from troponin

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cardiac muscle contraction calcium step 6

calcium replaced by sodium through sodium potassium ATPase

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why does the myocyte action potential have a plateau?

to prevent the heart from continuously contracting

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100

heart conducting system step 1

SA node depolarizes

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