OCR biology paper 2 useful terms

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abiotic factors

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108 Terms

1

abiotic factors

non living (physical) components of an ecosystem

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2

biomass

the total mass of organisms in a given area

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3

biotic factors

living components of an ecosystem

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4

carbon cycle

process through which carbon cycles through the atmosphere, the earth and plants and animals

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5

community

all living organisms in an area

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6

competition

two or more organisms contesting a resource

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7

consumers

organisms that have to eat other organisms to gain energy

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8

decomposers

organisms that gain their energy by feed on dead or decaying material

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9

detritivores

small animal which breaks down organic matter into small pieces

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10

ecosystem

all the living organisms and physical conditions present in an area

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11

egestion

removal of undigested waste from an organism

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12

excretion

removal of waste products from an organism

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13

habitat

the place in which an organism lives

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14

interdependence

how different organisms depend on each other within a community

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15

mutualism

relationship in which both organisms benefit

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16

parasitism

relationship in which the parasite gains and the host is harmed

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17

population

the number of organisms of a species living in an area

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18

predation

relationship between a predator and a prey organism. predators depend on prey, normally for food

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19

producers

organisms that make their own food through the process of photosynthesis

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20

pyramid of biomass

diagram representing the amount biomass present at each trophic level of a food chain

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21

trophic level

feeding level in a food chain

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22

urine

liquid containing water, urea, and other waste substances

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23

alleles

different versions of the same gene

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24

asexual reproduction

resproduction which requires only one parent; results in clones

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25

cancer

a disease which occurs as the result of cell changes that lead to uncontrolled growth and division

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26

clone

an organism which is genetically identical to its parent

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27

continuous variation

variation which can take any value between a miniumum and a maximum

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28

dibloid cells

cells which contain two sets of chromosomes

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29

discontinous variation

characteristics which fall into distinct groups

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30

dominant allele

version of a gene whose characteristics is always expressed if present in the genotype

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31

environmental variation

variation caused by the environment

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32

feritilisation

joining together two gametes

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33

gametes

sex cells

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34

genetic cross

technique used to show the possible characteristics of an offspring

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35

genetic variation

variation caused by an organism’s genetic material

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36

genome

all the genetic material present in an organism

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37

genotype

the combination of alleles present in an organism

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38

haploid cells

cells which contain one set of chromosomes

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39

heterozygous

organism who has different alleles of a gene

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40

homozygous

organism who has two copies of the same allele

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41

meiosis

cell division which produces gametes

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42

mutation

change in the sequence of DNA bases

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43

phenotype

characteristics which are observed in an organism

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44

punnett square

diagram used to show the possible genetic makeup of offspring based on a mother’s and a father’s genes

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45

recessive allele

version of a gene whose characteristic is only expressed if two copies are present in the genotype

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46

sexual reproduction

reproduction requiring two parents, which results in variation

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47

variation

differences within a species

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48

zygote

fertilised egg

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49

artificial classification

grouping of organisms based on observable characteristics

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50

classifcation

grouping organisms who share characteristics or similarities in DNA

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51

evolution

gradual change in a species over time

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52

fossil

remains of a plant or animal mineralised or changed to rock

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53

fossil record

the sequence of fossils which together show how organisms have evolved over time

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54

natural selection

the process by which species best suited to their environment will survive and reproduce, passing on their advantageous characteristics to offspring

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55

phlogeny

the study of evolutionary links

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56

species

group of organisms that are able to reproduce to produce fertile offspring

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57

biodiversity

the variety of living organisms present in an area

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58

capture-recapture

technique used to estimate population size of animals

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59

conservation

protecting a natural environment to ensure habitats and organisms are not lost

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60

deforestation

removal of forest from an area

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61

ecotourism

a form of tourism that minimises the impact of visitors on the environment

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62

endangered species

species which have low numbers of surviving organisms left in the world

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63

extinct

species which have no surviving organisms left in the world

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64

identification key

chart used to identify unknown organisms

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65

indicator species

organisms whose presence or absence can be used to indicate pollution

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66

non-random sampling

systematically choosing where to take a sample

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67

random sampling

position of a sample is not pre-determined; individuals are selected by chance

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68

sample

taking observations or measurements from an area, which is representative of a larger area

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69

seed bank

a store of seeds, conserved for future possible use

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70

biological control

using a natural predator to control a pest population

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71

biotechnology

the use of biological processes or organisms to produce products

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72

donor organism

organism from which desired genes are taken

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73

food security

the ability of human populations to access food of sufficient quality and quanitity

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74

foreign genes

genes that are inserted into an organism from a different species

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75

gene pool

all the genetic material present in a population

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76

genetic engineering

altering an organism’s genome to produce an organism with desired characteristics

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77

host organism

organism into which foreign genes are inserted

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78

hydroponics

growing plants in water containing dissolved minerals

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79

intensive farming

farming which uses techniques to produce maximum yield of food products from the minimum area of land. often achieved by using chemicals and machinery

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80

ligase enzymes

enzymes which re-join DNA at sticky ends

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81

organic farming

uses more natural methods of producing crops and rearing animals, avoiding the use of chemicals

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82

restriction enzymes

enzymes which cut DNA at specific base sequences producing sticky ends

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83

selective breeding

the process by which humans breed animals and plants with desired characteristics

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84

sticky ends

exposed unpaired bases on the ends of the DNA strands produced by restriction enzymes

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85

sustainable food production

producing food using methos that can be continued indefinitely

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86

vector

a vehicle, such as a bacterium, used to transfer genetic material into an organism

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87

antigens

proteins on the surface of a microorganism

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88

antiseptic

chemicals that kill or neutralise all types of pathogen, but do not damage human tissue

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89

antivirals

drugs that destory viruses

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90

aseptic technique

technique used to ensure that no foreign microorganisms are introduced into a sample being tested

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91

clinical trial

stages of testing required to approve a drug for use

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92

communicable disease

a disease which can be transmitted between organisms

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93

contagious

a disease which is easily transmitted

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94

diagnosis

identifying a disease in a plant or animal

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95

disease

a condition caused by any part of an organism not functioning properly

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96

droplet infection

method of disease transmission; pathogens spread by airborne droplets from the nose, throat, or lungs

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97

immunity

the ability of the body to fight off a microorganism before it has the ability to cause disease

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98

incidence of a disease

the number of new cases of a disease, per unit population, per unit time

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99

incubation period

the time between contracting a disease and disease symptoms showing

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100

lymphocytes

white blood cells that make antibodies and antitoxins

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