OT Final

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List some of the backgrounds of the authors of the Bible.

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1

List some of the backgrounds of the authors of the Bible.

Farmer (Amos), priests (Jeremiah, Ezekiel), statesman (Daniel), fishermen (Peter, John), prophets (Isaiah, Micah), physician (Luke), former tax collector (Matthew)

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2

2 Timothy 3:16-17

All Scripture is God-breathed and is profitable for teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness, so that the servant of God may be thoroughly equipped for every good work.

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3

2 Peter 1:20-21

Above all, you must understand that no prophecy of Scripture came about by the prophet's own interpretation of things. For prophecy never had its origin in the human will, but prophets, though human, spoke from God as they were carried along by the Holy Spirit.

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4

Divisions of the English Bible, OT

Law, History, Wisdom/Poetry, Major Prophets, Minor Prophets

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5

Divisions of the English Bible, NT

Gospels, History, Letters, Apocalypse

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6

General revelation

General revelation is that which can be known about God through natural elements, human processes, or intuition

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7

Special revelation

Special revelation is that which can be known about God through some means of direct communication from him (like the Bible, prophetic utterances, visions)

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8

Inspiration

The Bible is the authoritative word of God

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9

Inerrancy

The quality of being free from all falsehood or mistake

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10

Infallible

The quality of neither being misleading nor being misled

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11

Deductive argument for the Bible

Circular by necessity - cannot appeal to higher authority than God

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12

What does the term Bible mean?

The entire collection of OT and NT books

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13

Whence derives the term Bible?

The word for papyrus (byblos) into the Greek for book or roll (biblion)

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14

What are some biblical synonyms for bible?

Writings, scriptures

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15

What does the term testament refer to when talking about the Bible?

It refers to the two covenants of how God deals with his people differently at different times.

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16

List the major biblical covenants.

Noahic, Abrahamic, Mosaic, Davidic, New

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17

Who argued that the OT was superseded by the NT and was therefore no longer necessary (and that the God of the OT was inferior to the God of the NT)?

Marcion

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18

How are the OT and NT related?

The OT is the foundation for the NT; it is the statement to be fulfilled by the NT.

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19

What constitutes scriptural authority for Jews?

The written and oral Torah (written and oral law) have the same authority as revelation and as the foundation upon which the Jewish people build their lives.

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20

What constitutes scriptural authority for Christians?

The OT and NT writings are authoritatively revelation from God.

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21

List the divisions of the Hebrew Bible

Law (Torah), Prophets (Nebi'im), Writings (Kethubim)

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22

Hebrew prophets divided into

former prophets and latter prophets (pre- and post-exilic)

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23

To what does the term Pentateuch refer to?

Torah/first five books of the OT

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24

To what does the term Tanak refer?

Tanak is an acrostic formed from the first letter of each Hebrew division of the OT - TaNaK (Torah, Nebi'im, Kethubim)

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25

Who was responsible for writing the Torah?

Moses

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26

What is the Book of the Twelve?

The minor prophets gathered in one book

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27

How many OT books are there and why do different counts exist?

There are 39. Counts vary depending on how books are grouped (book of the 12, Ruth and Judges, Lamentations and Jeremiah, etc)

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28

The English Bible draws its order of OT books from where?

Latin Vulgate

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29

How many books are in the standard NT?

27

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30

List the divisions of the NT

Gospels, history, letters, apocalypse

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31

What does the term "synoptic problem" refer to?

The issue of explaining remarkable similarities with which the Evangelists report the sayings of Jesus and the events of His life while still accounting for important differences.

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32

Name some theories dealing with the synoptic problem

Farrer Theory, Oxford Theory, Augustinian Theory, Grieshach Theory, Oral Tradition Theory

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33

Farrer theory

Markan priority, Matthew writes next, Luke draws from both

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34

Oxford theory

Four Source - Markan Priority. Mark and Q used for material common to Matthew and Luke. M contributes material unique to Matthew, L contains material unique to Luke

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35

Augustinian theory

Matthian priority, Mark abbreviates Matthew, Luke draws from both.

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36

Grieshach theory

Matthian priority, Luke writes next, Mark uses both.

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37

Oral tradition theory

Similarities between synoptic gospels come from shared oral tradition of the gospels

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38

Approximately how many authors were involved in writing the Bible?

More than forty

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39

Over how many years was the Old Testament composed?

900 years

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40

Over how many years was the New Testament composed?

50 years

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41

Over how many years was the Bible composed?

About 1500

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42

Progression of development of writing

Drawing, pictograms, logograms, syllabic writing, alphabet

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43

Which are the biblical languages?

Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek

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44

Which parts of the Bible were written in which language?

OT in Hebrew and Aramaic, NT in Greek

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45

What does paleo-Hebrew refer to?

The earliest Hebrew script (NOT square)

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46

What does the term Square script refer?

The Aramaic-based later Hebrew script

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47

When did the Jews switch from the paleo-Hebrew script to the Square script?

Sometime after their return from the Babylonian exile

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48

How did the Jews come to speak Greek?

As part of Alexander the Great's empire.

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49

What are some examples of ancient writing materials?

Stone, clay tablets, papyrus, leather, parchment, wooden/ivory tablets, potsherds, precious metals, paper, ink

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50

How was stone used for writing?

Engraved or drawn upon, versatile (monuments or graffiti)

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51

How were clay tablets used for writing?

Impressed on with wood or reed stylus, then dried

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52

How was papyrus used for writing?

Strips of reed plants were laid out in crisscrossing layers and dried underneath a weight, creating "pre-lined" paper.

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53

How was leather used for writing?

Animal skins were scraped and dried

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54

How was parchment used for writing?

animal skins soaked in lime, written on with sharpened split reeds

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55

How were wooden/ivory tablets used for writing

Tablets covered with plaster; message scratched on plaster

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56

How were potsherds/ostraca used for writing?

They were painted or engraved

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57

How were precious metals used for writing?

They were engraved

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58

Paper came to the Western world from where, and when?

Arrives from Asia around AD 900

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59

How widespread was literacy in ancient Israel?

Difficult to ascertain - widespread by 7th century BC, but the writing system that made literacy more accessible probably arrived by 1600 BC, so literacy could have been widespread, just with little extant archaeological evidence for it

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60

In ancient times, who was probably responsible for formal, professional writing?

Scribes

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61

To what does the term paleography refer?

study of ancient writing

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62

Where does the term canon derive from?

Semitic 'qaneh' (reed, measuring stick), later Greek 'kanon' (standard, guideline)

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63

What does the term canon refer to today?

a list of books held to be authoritative

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64

Where does the basis for the concept of a canon come?

Scripture itself

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65

what are some titles for the Old Testament canon?

graphai, most holy scriptures or writings, sacred books (biblion hieron), Law and the Prophets, law, prophets, and the writings

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66

What historic event could have provoked the collection of the Law and the Prophets?

destruction of the first temple

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67

according to R.K. Harrison, when was the cannon of the OT essentially complete?

third or fourth century BC

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68

When does Dr. Sanchez think the OT canon was complete?

Strong evidence that it was complete and recognized by 300 BC and certainly by the time of Jesus

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69

How did the Christian church come to accept the OT canon?

The church grew out of Jewish community, Jesus revered the OT, disciples were taught to revere the OT

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70

Who made a clear distinction between canonical and apocryphal books?

Jerome, in the Vulgate (Catholic church chose to ignore this later)

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71

When did the Roman Catholic Church officially decide to include the Apocrypha in the canon?

1546, Council of Trent

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72

Summarize H.E. Ryle's view of the formation of the OT canon (Dr. Sanchez rejects this view)

Pentateuch was recognized as canonical in the fifth century BC, prophets were recognized in the third century BC, and the hagiographa (other writings) by AD 90

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73

According to S.Z. Leiman and Beckwith, when was the OT canon closed?

Mid-second century BC.

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74

What are sources of evidence for the OT canon?

Septuagint, prologue to ecclesiasticus, NT, Philo of Alexandria, 2 Esdras, Josephus, Melito of Sardis, A List in Jerusalem, Origen, Athanasius, Jerome, Tyrannius Rufinus, Jewish Tradition

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75

Septuagint as evidence for OT canon

Contains OT books and some apocrypha

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76

Prologue to Ecclesiasticus/Sirach as evidence for OT canon

Refers to "Law and the Prophets and other books of our ancestors"

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77

NT as evidence for OT canon

"Abel to Zechariah son of Berechiah" (from Genesis to 2 Chronicles, the bookends of canon)

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78

Philo of Alexandria as evidence for OT canon

Philo quotes much of the OT with divine weight, but never quotes the Apocrypha

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79

2 Esdras as evidence for OT canon

Refers to twenty-four books to be widely published (likely the canonical books) and seventy others to be hidden (apocryphal books)

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80

Josephus as evidence for OT canon

Lists 21 books and describes their categories; the 21 correlate with the division of the modern 39

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81

Melito of Sardis as evidence for OT canon

Melito sends a letter to his friend with the first known Christian list of the OT books, although a couple are omitted

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82

A List in Jerusalem as evidence for OT canon

List from about the same time as Melito's (or a bit later) that includes all of the OT canon except for Lamentations

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83

Origen as evidence for OT canon

Gives the 22 (same 39) in Hebrew and Greek

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84

Athanasius as evidence for OT canon

Distinguishes between canonical and non-canonical, excludes Esther, includes Baruch and Epistle of Jeremiah

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85

Jerome as evidence for OT canon

Gives tripartite division of OT ; books on his list equate to modern 39

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86

Tyrannius Rufinus as evidence for OT canon

Lists 24 books that correspond to the modern 39, and follows a common book division amongst the Jews

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87

Jewish Tradition as evidence for OT canon

Babylonian Talmud provides a thorough list of the books of Scripture and their order; it does not include the Pentateuch because the Pentateuch was not in question

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88

Rabbinic Tradition as evidence for OT canon

Gives order of Prophets and Hagiographa

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89

What was the council of Jamnia? What did Graetz suggest happened there? What does J.P. Lewis suggest is wrong with Graetz' argument?

The Council of Jamnia was a series of religious discussions at the school in Jamnia. Graetz suggested formal pronouncements were made that defined the limits of the canon. Lewis says Jamnia is the symbol for a culmination of long processes in early Judaism, and that Graetz' theory makes what happened there sound overly formal.

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90

Which five OT books were disputed and why?

Ezekiel - contradicts Law, speculation about nature of throne, temple dimensions do not match any extant temple. Proverbs - self-contradictory. Esther - secular history, no mention of Yahweh, new feast introduced, questioned calendar. Ecclesiastes - too skeptical or pessimistic. Song of Solomon - explicit.

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91

What term describes the books (OT and NT) that were disputed?

Antilegomenoi (literally, Greek, "spoken against")

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92

What is the term Alexandrian Canon meant to suggest?

That the Hellenestic Jews had a different, independent canon from the Palestinian Jews, which contained apocryphal books

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93

According to Josephus' testimony, what were the four tests for canonicity?

Does not contain contradictions, written by a prophet or someone recognized as having divine authority, originated through inspiration from God, accepted by the Jews as authoritative material

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94

Dr. Sanchez' four tests for canonicity

Written by a prophet, written by someone with God-given authority, believed to be truthful (people don't value or die for texts they know are lies), accepted and preserved (later communities examined these books and agreed with the consensus that they were reliable)

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95

Name the non-canonical books mentioned in the OT

Book of the Wars of Yahweh, Book of Jasher, Book of Annals of Solomon, Book of the Annals of the Kings of Israel, Book of the Annals of the Kings of Judah, Book of the Annals of King David, Annals of Samuel the Seer, Annals of Nathan the Prophet, Annals of Gad the Seer, Prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite, Visions of Iddo the Seer, Annals of Shemaiah the Prophet and of Iddo the Seer, Commentary of the Prophet Iddo, Commentary of the Books of the Kings, Acts of Uzziah, Book of the Kings of Israel, Annals of the Kings of Israel, Book of the Annals, Book of the Annals (Persian), Book of the Annals of the Kings of Media and Persia

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96

What does apocrypha mean?

literally "hidden knowledge", today carries connotation of "inferior books" (non-canonical)

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97

To which books does the OT apocrypha refer?

1-2 Esdras, 1-2 Maccabees, Tobit, Judith, Susanna, Additions to Esther, Bel and the Dragon, Sirach, Wisdom of Solomon, Baruch, Prayer of Manasseh, Epistle of Jeremiah, Prayer of Azariah

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98

What are some reasons for accepting the Apocrypha?

NT alludes to it, NT quotes Septuagint which includes Apocrypha, found among dead sea scrolls, early Christian art reflects apocryphal themes, some early church fathers accepted them, Council of Trent authorized them

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99

what are some reasons for rejecting the apocrypha?

NT never cites it, no self-claim to divine scripture, OT canon confirmed by many sources, little evidence for separate Palestinian/Egyptian canons, significant historical inaccuracies, theological inconsistencies, many early church fathers speak against all or much of apocrypha, earliest OT canon doesn't include it, Jerome argued against it, Luther argued against it at Trent

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100

To what does the term pseudonymity refer?

being written under a false name

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