Animal Science After Exam 3

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Who is the founder and head trainer of Triumphant Tails?

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1

Who is the founder and head trainer of Triumphant Tails?

Megan Standish-Flemming

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What is Triumphant Tails?

A service dog and therapy dog training organization

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What is Megan Standish-Flemming’s story?

On her second tour to Iraq, her convoy was ambushed, she was blown up and shot. She had multiple facial fractures and a contrecoup brain injury, which causes her seizures. She was having so many seizures she had to be on 24-hour watch, but when she was able to get a seizure alert dog and take medication before her seizures began, it gave her freedom back. She then started training service dogs and even trained one for her son after he became an amputee from a lawn mover accident.

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4

What are the 4 types of working dogs?

Service Dogs, Therapy Dogs, K-9’s and search and rescue dogs

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5

What is the purpose of wildlife rehabilitation?

Provide vet care and animal husbandry to sick, injured or orphaned wild life, and return to the wild if possible

Increase population numbers for endangered and threatened animals

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Risks associated with wildlife rehabilitation?

Diseases, Injuries, Rabies

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7

What are some species that are not allowed to be rehabilitated?

Adult White Tailed Deer

Adult Black Bears

Coyotes

Nutria

Feral Swine

Armadillos

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  • An important cause of reproductive failure

  • Produces sterility without obvious signs

  • Zoonotic

  • Antibiotic Therapy is possible (relapse likely)

  • No Vaccine

  • Treatment: Castrate, Test, and Remove from Kennel

Brucellosis

(Bacterial Diseases- Dogs)

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  • Spread by Urine(contaminated food and water)

  • Fever in early stages, listlessness, loss of appetite, mental depression

  • Primarily affects kidneys

  • Antibiotics can help or animal can become a carrier

  • Zoonotic

  • Vaccine Available

Leptospirosis

(Bacterial Diseases- Dogs)

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  • Bacteria(clostridium tetani), not contagious

  • Neurotoxin- Spastic Contractions, Difficulty Opening Mouth, Rigid Extension of Legs

  • Prognosis is poor unless treated with antitoxins, sedatives, IV fluids, and wound care

  • Cats rarely get it due to natural immunity

Tetanus (Lockjaw)

(Bacterial Diseases- Dogs and Cats)

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  • Zoonotic

  • Lung Infection

  • Low Grade Fever with wasting and loss of condition in spite of good owner care

  • Euthanasia may be the best choice

  • Dogs usually catch from owner

  • Cats are immune to the human form but can catch the bovine form

  • Euthanasia is recommended in cats

Tuberculosis

(Bacterial Diseases- Dogs and Cats)

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  • Puppies, Young or Elderly Animals are most susceptible

  • Gastroenteritis, fever, loss of appetite, depression

  • Dog could become an asymptomatic carrier

  • Zoonotic

Salmonellosis (Salmonella)

(Bacterial Diseases- Dogs and Cats)

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  • Can be transmitted by ticks

  • Bacteria penetrates the skin

  • Causes skin lesions, swollen lymph nodes, pneumonia, weakness in their rear legs

  • Zoonotic from animal to human only

Tularemia

(Bacterial Disease- Dogs)

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  • Common U.S. Tick Borne Disease

  • Sudden onset lameness, weakness and fever

  • Dogs transmit to humans via the tick vector

Lyme disease

(Bacterial Diseases- Dogs)

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  • Transmitted by ticks

  • Can affect humans

  • Numerous Symptoms

  • An animal can be a carrier for a long time

  • More than 60% of reported cases occur in five states, North Carolina, Tennessee, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Missouri

Rocky Mount Spotted Fever

(Bacterial Diseases- Dogs)

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  • Similar to measles in humans

  • Only around 50% of dogs show symptoms

  • Neurological symptoms can last for life

  • Vaccine Available

  • Two Stages of Symptoms

    • 1st Stage 3-15 Days: 103-105 Fever, Loss of Appetite, Listlessness, watery pus-like discharge from eyes and face, discharge becomes thick, yellow and sticky with dry cough and usually diarrhea

    • 2nd Stage 2-3 weeks: Neurological Affects (Slobber, head shaking, seizures, turning in circles, falling over), chorea(rhythmic jerks)

Distemper

(Viral Diseases- Dogs)

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  • Appeared in the U.S. around 1976-1977

  • Very Hardy and transmitted by direct contact

  • DNA virus that requires rapidly growing cells, so puppies are most susceptible

  • 2 forms

    • GI- Bloody Diarrhea, Fever, Abdomen Pain, Decreased Appetite, Vomiting & Death

    • Heart

Canine Parvovirus

(Viral Diseases- Dog)

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  • 1st isolated from military dogs in Germany 1971

  • Early Diagnosis is Important

  • Secondary bacterial infections make make treatment difficult

  • Vaccines are Uncertain

Canine Coronavirus

(Viral Diseases- Dogs)

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  • Most severe in late pregnancy and in puppies

  • Hard, distended abdomen

  • Usually dies within 24 hours

  • Has for life (though signs don’t always show)

  • Separate pregnant dogs and puppies

  • NOT Zoonotic

Herpes

(Viral Diseases- Dogs)

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  • Only in Dogs

  • Transmitted by direct contact

  • Vaccine Available and Should Vaccinate

  • 2 Forms

    • Fatal Form- Sudden Illness, Bloody Diarrhea, Vomiting, Refusal to Eat

    • Acute Form- Fever up to 106, bloody diarrhea, vomiting, refusal to eat, movement is painful

Infectious Canine Hepatitis (CAV 1)

(Viral Diseases- Dogs)

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  • Can be transmitted to humans and most warm blooded animals

  • Transmitted by bite or direct contact

  • Furious or “mad stage” or “dumb stage”

  • Routine Vaccinations Needed

Rabies

(Viral Diseases- Dogs and Cats)

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  • Infectious Respiratory Disease that Is usually accompanies by a harsh cough

  • Highly Contagious

  • Usually occurs when lots of dogs are housed together

  • Disease can be viral or bacterial

  • Vaccines are available

  • Vaccinated dogs can still sometimes become infected

Kennel Cough(Infectious Tracheobronchitis)

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Fungal Diseases in Dogs

  • Histoplastmosis

  • Blastomycosis

  • Coccidiodomycosis

  • Ringworm

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  • In young cats and dogs

  • Problem in the southern U.S.

  • Results from Filth, Overcrowding and Dampness

Coccidosis

(Protozoan diseases in Dogs and Cats)

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  • Acquired from consuming infected organisms

  • Common in cats, but can happen in dogs

  • Humans can get it from eating uncooked meats or animal contamination

  • Causes various symptoms

  • Can cause birth defects in human babies invitro

  • CDC reports it to be the 3rd leading cause of foodborne illness-related deaths

Toxoplasmosis

(Protozoan Diseases in Cats and Dogs)

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  • Less than 5% of cats develop symptoms, but many are carriers

  • Caused by coronavirus

  • Vaccine available but not affective in all cases and may not be available for your animal

  • Death is usually the end result

  • 2 Forms

    • Wet Form- Fluid around heart and body cavities

    • Dry Form- Severe inflammation or organs

Feline Infectious Peritonitis (FIP)

(Viral Diseases in Cats)

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  • Biting is the main form of transmission

  • Usually die from secondary infections due to low immune function

  • Separate infected cats

  • Get cats tested

  • Prevention is key

Feline Immunodeficiency Virus

(Viral Diseases in Cats)

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  • Transmission can occur via biting, mating, saliva transfer, grooming etc.

  • Signs are non-specific

  • leads to cancer and increased severity of secondary diseases

  • Acute or Chronic Form

  • If contracted, death usually occurs within 3 years

  • Get your cat tested

Feline Leukemia Virus

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29

T/F Dogs cannot develop resistance to worms

False, they can develop resistance to certain worms

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30

T/F Worm larva can become dormant then reactivate

True

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T/F Roundworms are not common in puppies

False, they are common and puppies should be dewormed around 2-3 weeks and 5-6 weeks

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  • Type of Worm

  • Can be very serious in puppies

  • Can hatch around 200,000 daily

  • Eggs come from soil, enter oil cavity, hatch in intestines, crawl up the windpipe, are swallowed, then return to the intestines as adults

  • May be passed in stool

Roundworms

(Internal Parasites in Dogs)

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  • Small, thin worms that fasten to the intestine walls and draw blood

  • From soil to intestines

  • Can kill puppies

  • Puppies can get from moms milk

Hookworms

(Internal Parasites in Dogs)

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  • Worms

  • Humans can get these

  • Can get from uncooked meat, raw fish, or fleas

  • Not usually life threatening in dogs, but serious in humans

Tapeworms

(Internal Parasites in Dogs)

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  • Worms

  • Adults live in the right side of the heart

  • Can reach up to 12 inches in length

  • Normally, dogs can have up to 250

  • Asymptomatic for a long time, then get shortness of breath, weight loss, and a deep cough

  • Treatment is complex and potentially dangerous

  • Prevention is best

HeartWorms

(Internal Parasites in Dogs)

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  • Mites

  • Scratching and biting of infected sites

  • Humans can catch but only lasts around 3 weeks and is easily treated

Sarcoptic Mange

(External Parasites in Dogs)

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  • Most severe form

  • Mites

  • Less zoonotic than other forms

  • Some breeds are more prone

  • Animals can be predisposed due to immune issues

Demodicosis “Red” Mange

(External Parasites in Dogs)

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  • Occurs in puppies

  • The appearance of the large, whitish mites as they crawl across skin and fur

  • Very dangerous

Walking Dandruff

(External Parasites in Dogs)

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39

This is the most common insect problem for dogs

Ordinary Cat Flea

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40

Common type of flea

The Dog Flea

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  • Feed on blood

  • Disease Carrier

  • Allergies

Fleas

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Most common type of tick

Brown Dog Tick

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  • Suck Blood

  • Carry Numerous Diseases

Ticks

(External Parasites in Dogs)

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  • Can bite and feed on skin

  • Can suck and feed on blood

  • Ear Irritant

Lice

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Common problems associated with Mites

  • Scabies

  • Bacterial infections from scratching

  • Ear mites

  • Chiggers

  • Mange in cats

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46

T/F You need different medications to treat fleas in both cats and dogs

True

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47

T/F Dogs inherited the social nature of the coyote

False, the wolf

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48

Fights in dogs are usually ______ sex

same

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49

____ dogs have a higher rank in the pack

Older

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50

Dominance

When an animal actively seeks out competition for social rank

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51

T/F Most dogs don’t develop into dominant animals because of artificial selection

True

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52

Dominance can be _________ ______ or _______

inate temperament or behavioral

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53

Dominance characteristics are developed by _______

Social maturity

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54

3 Types of communication patterns for dogs

Visual, Scent and Auditory

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Visual Communication

Eye contact, facial contact, facial expressions and body postures

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In dominant dogs not _____ ______ _____ results in fights

Dropping Eye Contact

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T/F Tail wagging means a dog is happy

False, a tail wagging could mean friendly, scared, aggressive or other emotions

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4 Main Aggression Groups

Dominance, Territorial, Possessive and others

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Other Aggressions

Maternal Agression

Intact Male Agression

Pain-elicited

Fright Aggression

Re-Directed/Misdirected Aggression

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Dominance Aggression

When a dominant dog reacts to an apparent challenge to his social status

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Territorial Aggression

Aggression for any area dog feels it should protect

Could be caused by fear

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This aggression is normal for guard dogs

Territorial Aggression

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This type of aggression can be difficult to control if encouraged by the owner at certain times

Territorial Aggression

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Possessive Aggression

Directed toward humans or other pets that approach the dog when it is in possession of something that is highly desirable

Can be a learned behavior

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Natural Behavior in dogs and not aggressive

Significantly reduced in most breeds based on selective breeding

Predation

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66

Two things needed to control overpopulation of companion animals

Spay & Neuter Programs

High Volume Adoptions

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67

What do shelters do when they have no room

They need to find foster homes or rescue groups to take them or they have to euthanize

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68

T/F Shelters with a “no kill” policy have to refuse animals when they are full to avoid euthanizations

True

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69

How many companion animals are euthanized per year in the U.S.?

10-15 Million

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70

The two categories of organizations that help animals

Animal Rights and Animal Welfare

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71

Animal Rights

Animals have the same rights as people

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Animal Welfare

Animals have the right to be treated with respect and as humanely as possible

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What does PETA Stand for?

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals

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PETA

Animal Rights Organization

Believe that animals are not ours to eat, wear, experiment on, or use for entertainment

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Things PETA has done

Stopped many cases of animal abuse

An affiliated group bombed the Michigan State University animal science department 15 years ago

Members have been charged and convicting with making false videos

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What does ALF stand for?

Animal Liberation Front

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Animal Liberation Front

Extremest Animal Rights Group that works annonymously and will use any means necessary

They have done economic sabotage before

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What does ARM stand for?

Animal Rights Militia

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Animal Rights Militia

Supports the ALF but is less extreme

Poison Hoax

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What does SPCA stand for?

Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals

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Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals

Animal Welfare Organization

Helps animals through rescue, adoption, cruelty prevention, humane education, and vet care

Does kill in some cases

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The Humane Society

Animal Welfare Group

Primary purpose is to shelter and find homes for needy pets

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What does HSUS stand for?

Humane Society of the United States

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Humane Society of the United States

In the middle between animal welfare and rights

Work for protection of animals through investigation, rehabilitation, education, political and consumer advocacy and litigation

Changing to be more animal rights

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85

Reportedly 1 in 5 people support this organization

Humane Society of the United States  (HSUS)

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86

The 3 protective reactions all species of dog have

Fight, Flight or Freeze

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Habituation

When a dog realizes if a stimulus is good or bad, or irrelevant then slowly adjusts to it

Can be short or long term

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Sensitization

When the animal learns to fear a situation instead of accept it

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89

What are the two types of dog conditioning?

Classical and Operant

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Classical Conditioning

Focuses on relationships between 2 or more stimuli

Timing Is important

Teaching a dog that two events are related

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What is the current best way of training?

Operant Conditioning with Positive Reinforcement

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Succesive Approximating

Dog must offer the desired activity then receives praise

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Counter Conditioning

Teaching a dog to respond in the complete opposite way of their previous response

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Counter Commanding

Commanding a dog to do something they are afraid of

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Flooding

Slowly exposing a dog to things they are afraid of

Increases some fear at first, better for dogs with lower levels of fear and dominant owners.

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96

The most common behavior problem in dogs

Aggression

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97

How many dog bites a year require medical attention

800,000

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98

How many people a year undergo facial reconstruction due to dog bites

300,000

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99

T/F Urban areas have more dog bites and ER visits

False, rural areas

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100

How much money was paid last year in homeowner insurance claims and dog bite victims?

Nearly 2 billion dollars

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