Chapter 5: Basics to Nutrition

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1

True!

There is no evidence to support the efficacy of a detox diet or cleanse if the person has normal kidney and liver function

T or F?

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2

False!

A high protein diet (> 1.2 g/kg/day) will lead to kidney and liver failure

T or F?

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3

False!

Carbs are the main cause of obesity in the world

T or F?

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4

True!

Carbs are primarily stored as glycogen in skeletal muscle and the liver

T or F?

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5
  • Veggies, whole grains and plant-based proteins

  • Saturated fat, salt and sugar

Fill in the blank!

Canadians should eat more __________________________________________ and reduce the amount of ______________________ they consume!

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6
  • Cancer

  • Heart disease

  • Stroke

What are the top 3 leading causes of death in Canada?

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Nutrients

What is a substance found in food/products that performs on one or more specific function in the body?

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  • Energy

  • Growth and Development

  • Regular Metabolism

What are examples of nutrients?

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  • Carbs

  • Proteins

  • Fats

What are the three macronutrients that are needed in the body in large amounts each day?

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Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)

What is the range for a healthy intake?

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45%-65%

What is the AMDR for Carbs?

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10%-35%

What is the AMDR for Protein?

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20%-35%

What is the AMDR for Fats?

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14

Kilocalorie (kcal)

How is the amount of energy measured?

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  • 4

How many kcals/gram are in carbs and proteins?

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  • 9

How many kcals/gram are in lipids and oils?

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  • 7

How many kcals/gram are in alcohol?

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18

Water

What is a macronutrient, does not provide kcalories, and makes up about 60% of a healthy human body?

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19

Micronutrients

Which class of nutrients provide no energy for the body, but are necessary for the proper functioning of the body?

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  • Vitamins

  • Minerals

What are examples of micronutrients?

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21
  • The body weight will increase over time

What could happen if more energy is consumed than what is needed?

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22

Biochemical reactions in the body

What helps to release the energy contained in carbs, fats and proteins?

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23

Water, fats and proteins

What is most of the weight of the body due to?

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24

The shape and structure of the body

What do nutrients form and maintain?

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25

Ligaments and tendons that hold bones together and attach muscles to bones

What do proteins form?

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26

Lipids and proteins make up the membranes that surround cells

At the cellular level, ….

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27

Metabolism

What are all the reactions that occur in the body called?

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Homeostasis

What is the proper regulation of metabolism called?

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29

To speed up/slow down the metabolic reactions

Proteins, vitamins and minerals help…

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To regulate temperature

Water helps…

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Dietary pattern

What is a description of a way of eating that includes the types and amounts of recommended foods and food groups?

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Dietary reference intakes (DRIs)

What is a set of reference values for the intake of energy, nutrients and food components that can be used for planning and assessing the diets of healthy people in the USA and CA?

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  • Planning and assessing diets of healthy people

  • Vary according to life stage and gender

  • Promote good health

  • Reduce chronic disease

What are DRIs used for?

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  • Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs)

What did DRIs replace?

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35

Estimated Avg. Requirement (EAR)

What type of DRI is the estimated amount of a nutrient required to meet the needs of 50% of people within a particular sex and life stage group?

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Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)

What type of DRI is the average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97%-98%) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group?

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plus / subtract 2 standard deviations

EAR is…

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Adequate Intake (AI)

What type of DRI is:

  • when EAR/RDA is not available,

  • is a recommended specific amount (estimated) of a nutrient for an individual and

  • is based on limited data but may indicate that this amount has not been shown to result in disease or adverse events?

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Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)

What type of DRI is a:

  • max. daily intake of a nutrient unlikely to cause adverse health effects in a given life stage and gender group?

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  • Can have deficiency diseases that can lead to death

If your nutrient intake is below RDA or AI, then your body…

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  • Is having an adequate and safe intake of nutrients

If your nutrient intake is within RDA or AI, then your body…

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  • Can experience toxic effects and even death

If your nutrient intake is above UL, then your body…

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43

Nutritious foods are the foundation for healthy eating

  • Veggies, fruits, whole grains and protein foods should be consumed regularly

  • Plant-based foods

  • Eat foods that have unsaturated fat

  • Water should be the main drink of choice

What is the 1st guideline of Canada’s dietary guidelines?

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44

Processed or prepared foods and beverages that contribute to excess sodium, free sugars or saturated fat undermine healthy eating and should not be consumed regularly

  • Alcohol (health risks associated with excessive consumption)

What is the 2nd guideline of Canada’s dietary guidelines?

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Food skills are needed to navigate the complex food environment and support healthy eating

  • Cooking and preparing food using nutritious foods should be promoted as a practical way to support healthy eating

  • Food labels should be promoted as a tool to help Canadians make informed food choices

What is the 3rd guideline of Canada’s dietary guidelines?

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“Eat a Variety of Healthy Foods Each Day'“

What was the 2019 Message of Canada’s Food Guide?

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47
  • Veggies and fruits should cover approx. 50% of the plate

  • Proteins and whole grains should make up about 25% of the plate

What should be the plate layout according to Canada’s Food Guide?

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48

Influence your choices

Food marketing can…

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49

Nutrient density

What is a measure of the nutrients a food provides compared to its energy content?

  • EX: Broccoli is more nutrient-dense than fries

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50
  • Provide fewer kcals

  • More calcium

  • More Vit. C and Vit. A

  • More folate

What would happen if you ate broccoli instead of fries?

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51

Daily value

What represents how much of a specific nutrient (mostly in %, can be in mg/g) you should obtain in the diet?

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52
  • 20%-25% cals

What daily value should the total fat be?

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53
  • 10% calories

What daily value should saturated fat be?

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54
  • 45% - 65% calories

What daily value should CHO be?

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  • 100 grams

What daily value should total sugars be?

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56
  • 28+ grams

What daily value should fiber be?

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57
  • 10% - 35% calories

What daily value should protein be?

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  • 300mg

What daily value should cholesterol be?

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  • 2300 mg

What daily value should sodium be?

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  • 4700 mg

What daily value should potassium be?

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61
  • Glucose

  • Galactose

  • Fructose

What are the 3 most common monosaccharides?

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Glucose or “Blood Sugar”

What is the most important carb fuel for the body?

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Through a dehydration reaction

  • EX: removing water

How does 2 monosaccharides come together?

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Disaccharides

What is the process of 2 monosaccharides coming together through a dehydration reaction?

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  • Maltose

  • Sucrose (Table sugar)

  • Lactose (Milk sugar)

What are 3 examples of disaccharides?

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Maltose

Glucose + Glucose = ?

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Sucrose

Glucose + Fructose = ?

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Lactose

Glucose + Galactose = ?

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Carbs are classified in:

  • Simple

  • Complex

How is carbs classified?

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Monosaccharide

What basic unit of a carb is a single glucose (sugar) molecule?

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Polysaccharides

What complex carbs are long chains of glucose molecules?

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  • Starch and Cellulose → From plants

    • EX: Fiber

  • Glycogen → from animals

What are examples of polysaccharides?

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Liver and muscles

Where is glycogen stored?

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Dietary or functional fibre

What are certain complex carbs that cannot be digested or absorbed by human enzymes?

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Functional fibre

What fibre is shown to have health/physiological benefits?

  • EX: Oat bran being added to bread

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  1. Energy (brain, kidney, muscle)

  2. Can be converted to liver/muscle glycogen

  3. Stored as fat

  4. Excreted in urine

What are the fates of blood glucose?

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Lipids

What is a group of organic molecules that do not dissolve in water, and is the chemical term for fat?

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  • Fatty acids

  • Triglycerides

  • Phospholipids

  • Sterols

What are examples of lipids?

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79

Texture, taste, flavour and aroma to foods

What do lipids contribute to?

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80

Triglycerides

What is the major form of lipids in food and in the body?

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81

3 fatty acids bind to a glycerol molecule

How are triglycerides formed?

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  • H atom from the glycerol and an OH group from the acid end of the fatty acid combine to form a molecule of water

What happens as each bond forms?

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83

Omega 6 polyunsaturated fatty acid

What is a linoleic acid?

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84

Vegetable/nut oils

Where is linoleic acid found?

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85

Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid

What is a linolenic acid?

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86

Green leafy veggies, flax, nuts and seafood

Where is linolenic acid found?

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87

3-6 grams

A daily diet should provide ______ of the linoleic and linolenic acids

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  • EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid)

  • DHA (docosahexaenoic acid)

  • ALA (α-linolenic acid)

What are the examples of omega 3 fatty acids?

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89
  • Decrease inflammation

  • Increase muscle protein synthesis pathways

  • Increase oxygen delivery to the heart during exercise

  • Increase nerve conduction velocity

What are the health benefits of Omega 3 fatty acids?

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90

Vitamin A

Which vitamin is a precursor for sight (Beta- Carotene) and an antioxidant?

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Vitamin D

Which vitamin is essential for bone growth and maintenance?

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Vitamin E

Which vitamin is a powerful antioxidant?

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Vitamin K

Which vitamin is coagulant and if consumed, chronic alcohol ingestion has a negative effect on it?

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Amino acids

What are the building blocks of protein?

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95
  • A central Carbon atom bound to a Hydrogen atom

  • An amino group

  • An acid group

  • A side chain

What does each amino acid contain?

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Essential (Indispensable) Amino Acids

What are amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the human body in sufficient amounts to meet needs and must be included in the diet?

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Nonessential (Dispensable) Amino Acids

What are amino acids that can be synthesized by the human body in sufficient amounts to meet needs

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98

20 amino acids

All _________ must be simultaneously present for optimal maintenance of growth and function.

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Animal products

What type of product contains all 20 amino acids?

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9 essential amino acids

How many essential amino acids do complete proteins have?

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