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There is no evidence to support the efficacy of a detox diet or cleanse if the person has normal kidney and liver function
T or F?
A high protein diet (> 1.2 g/kg/day) will lead to kidney and liver failure
Carbs are the main cause of obesity in the world
Carbs are primarily stored as glycogen in skeletal muscle and the liver
Veggies, whole grains and plant-based proteins
Saturated fat, salt and sugar
Fill in the blank!
Canadians should eat more __________________________________________ and reduce the amount of ______________________ they consume!
What are the top 3 leading causes of death in Canada?
What is a substance found in food/products that performs on one or more specific function in the body?
Growth and Development
What are examples of nutrients?
What are the three macronutrients that are needed in the body in large amounts each day?
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR)
What is the range for a healthy intake?
What is the AMDR for Carbs?
What is the AMDR for Protein?
What is the AMDR for Fats?
How is the amount of energy measured?
How many kcals/gram are in carbs and proteins?
How many kcals/gram are in lipids and oils?
How many kcals/gram are in alcohol?
What is a macronutrient, does not provide kcalories, and makes up about 60% of a healthy human body?
Which class of nutrients provide no energy for the body, but are necessary for the proper functioning of the body?
What are examples of micronutrients?
The body weight will increase over time
What could happen if more energy is consumed than what is needed?
Biochemical reactions in the body
What helps to release the energy contained in carbs, fats and proteins?
Water, fats and proteins
What is most of the weight of the body due to?
The shape and structure of the body
What do nutrients form and maintain?
Ligaments and tendons that hold bones together and attach muscles to bones
What do proteins form?
Lipids and proteins make up the membranes that surround cells
At the cellular level, ….
What are all the reactions that occur in the body called?
What is the proper regulation of metabolism called?
To speed up/slow down the metabolic reactions
Proteins, vitamins and minerals help…
To regulate temperature
What is a description of a way of eating that includes the types and amounts of recommended foods and food groups?
Dietary reference intakes (DRIs)
What is a set of reference values for the intake of energy, nutrients and food components that can be used for planning and assessing the diets of healthy people in the USA and CA?
Planning and assessing diets of healthy people
Vary according to life stage and gender
Promote good health
Reduce chronic disease
What are DRIs used for?
Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs)
What did DRIs replace?
Estimated Avg. Requirement (EAR)
What type of DRI is the estimated amount of a nutrient required to meet the needs of 50% of people within a particular sex and life stage group?
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA)
What type of DRI is the average daily dietary intake level that is sufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of nearly all (97%-98%) healthy individuals in a particular life stage and gender group?
plus / subtract 2 standard deviations
Adequate Intake (AI)
What type of DRI is:
when EAR/RDA is not available,
is a recommended specific amount (estimated) of a nutrient for an individual and
is based on limited data but may indicate that this amount has not been shown to result in disease or adverse events?
Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL)
What type of DRI is a:
max. daily intake of a nutrient unlikely to cause adverse health effects in a given life stage and gender group?
Can have deficiency diseases that can lead to death
If your nutrient intake is below RDA or AI, then your body…
Is having an adequate and safe intake of nutrients
If your nutrient intake is within RDA or AI, then your body…
Can experience toxic effects and even death
If your nutrient intake is above UL, then your body…
Nutritious foods are the foundation for healthy eating
Veggies, fruits, whole grains and protein foods should be consumed regularly
Eat foods that have unsaturated fat
Water should be the main drink of choice
What is the 1st guideline of Canada’s dietary guidelines?
Processed or prepared foods and beverages that contribute to excess sodium, free sugars or saturated fat undermine healthy eating and should not be consumed regularly
Alcohol (health risks associated with excessive consumption)
What is the 2nd guideline of Canada’s dietary guidelines?
Food skills are needed to navigate the complex food environment and support healthy eating
Cooking and preparing food using nutritious foods should be promoted as a practical way to support healthy eating
Food labels should be promoted as a tool to help Canadians make informed food choices
What is the 3rd guideline of Canada’s dietary guidelines?
“Eat a Variety of Healthy Foods Each Day'“
What was the 2019 Message of Canada’s Food Guide?
Veggies and fruits should cover approx. 50% of the plate
Proteins and whole grains should make up about 25% of the plate
What should be the plate layout according to Canada’s Food Guide?
Influence your choices
Food marketing can…
What is a measure of the nutrients a food provides compared to its energy content?
EX: Broccoli is more nutrient-dense than fries
Provide fewer kcals
More Vit. C and Vit. A
What would happen if you ate broccoli instead of fries?
What represents how much of a specific nutrient (mostly in %, can be in mg/g) you should obtain in the diet?
What daily value should the total fat be?
What daily value should saturated fat be?
45% - 65% calories
What daily value should CHO be?
What daily value should total sugars be?
What daily value should fiber be?
10% - 35% calories
What daily value should protein be?
What daily value should cholesterol be?
What daily value should sodium be?
What daily value should potassium be?
What are the 3 most common monosaccharides?
Glucose or “Blood Sugar”
What is the most important carb fuel for the body?
Through a dehydration reaction
EX: removing water
How does 2 monosaccharides come together?
What is the process of 2 monosaccharides coming together through a dehydration reaction?
Sucrose (Table sugar)
Lactose (Milk sugar)
What are 3 examples of disaccharides?
Glucose + Glucose = ?
Glucose + Fructose = ?
Glucose + Galactose = ?
Carbs are classified in:
How is carbs classified?
What basic unit of a carb is a single glucose (sugar) molecule?
What complex carbs are long chains of glucose molecules?
Starch and Cellulose → From plants
Glycogen → from animals
What are examples of polysaccharides?
Liver and muscles
Where is glycogen stored?
Dietary or functional fibre
What are certain complex carbs that cannot be digested or absorbed by human enzymes?
What fibre is shown to have health/physiological benefits?
EX: Oat bran being added to bread
Energy (brain, kidney, muscle)
Can be converted to liver/muscle glycogen
Stored as fat
Excreted in urine
What are the fates of blood glucose?
What is a group of organic molecules that do not dissolve in water, and is the chemical term for fat?
What are examples of lipids?
Texture, taste, flavour and aroma to foods
What do lipids contribute to?
What is the major form of lipids in food and in the body?
3 fatty acids bind to a glycerol molecule
How are triglycerides formed?
H atom from the glycerol and an OH group from the acid end of the fatty acid combine to form a molecule of water
What happens as each bond forms?
Omega 6 polyunsaturated fatty acid
What is a linoleic acid?
Where is linoleic acid found?