Digestive System

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Ingestion

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155 Terms

1

Ingestion

Solid or liquid food usually through mouth

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Digestion

Breakdown of large organic molecules into smaller molecules that can be absorbed

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Absorption

Movement of molecules out of the digestive tract and into the blood or lymphatic system

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Elimination

Removal of undigested material such as fiber from the food and other waste products from the body

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Feces

Undigested materials such as fiber from food and other waste products from the body are eliminated as

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Divisions of Digestive System

Digestive/Gastrointestinal Tract and Specific Associated Organs

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Organs of the Digestive System

Oral Cavity

Pharynx

Esophagus

Stomach

Small Intestine

Large Intestine

Anus

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Layers of the GI Tract

Mucosa

Submucosa

Muscularis

Serosa/Adventitia

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Mucosa

Innermost layer; Mucus Membrane

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Submucosa

Thick layer that contains nerves, blood vessels, and small glands

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Muscularis

Made of an inner and outer layer of smooth muscle

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Serosa

Outermost layer; made of peritoneum

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Anatomy of Oral Cavity

Lips

Cheek

Tongue

Palate

Tonsils

Teeth

Salivary Glands

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Lips

Also called labia; protects interior opening

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Cheek

Forms lateral walls of the mouth; Helps in forming words during speech

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Buccinator

Flattens cheek against teeth

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Tongue

Attached to the posterior part of the oral cavity; Functions in moving food in the mouth; Helps in speech

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Palate

Separates oral cavity and nasal cavity; Prevents food from passing into the nasal cavity during chewing and swallowing

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Parts of the Palate

Hard Palate

Soft Palate

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20

32

Teeth in Normal Adult

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21

20

Primary Teeth

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22

Major Pairs of Salivary Glands

Parotid

Submandibular

Sublingual

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23

Parotid Gland

Largest salivary gland

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24

Submandibular Gland

Produces serous secretion

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25

Sublingual Gland

Produces mucus secretions

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26

Saliva

Contains salivary amylase the breaks down starch into simple sugars

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27

Lysozyme

Lyses bacterial cell membrane; antimicrobial agent in food

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Mucin

A proteoglycan that gives a lubricating quality to the secretions of the salivary glands

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29

ANS

Salivary gland secretion is primarily regulated by the

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30

Pharynx

Connects mouth with esophagus

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31

Parts of Pharynx

Nasopharynx

Oropharynx

Laryngopharynx

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Oropharynx and Laryngopharynx

Only parts of the pharynx that carry food downs to the esophagus

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Esophagus

Extends from the pharynx to the stomach

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34

25cm

Length of esophagus

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Anterior, Posterior, Mediastinum

The esophagus lies ________ to the vertebrae and ______ to the trachea within the P __________

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Regions of Esophagus

Upper esophageal sphincter

Lower esophageal sphincter

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37

2/3

____ of the esophagus is made of skeletal muscle

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38

Phases of Deglutition

Buccal Phase

Pharyngeal Phase

Esophageal Phase

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39

Buccal Phase

Voluntary; Oral transit phase

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40

Tongue

Moves the bolus to the oropharynx

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Pharyngeal Phase

The bolus is pushed through the pharynx and into the esophagus;

Movement of the bolus stimulates receptors in the oropharynx which stimulates the soft palate and uvula to close off the nasopharynx and the epiglottis to seal off the larynx which prevents the bolus from entering the respiratory system.

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42

Esophageal Phase

The upper esophageal sphincter relaxes to allow the bolus to enter the esophagus and contracts to reduce backflow into the pharynx

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Peristalsis

A wave of involuntary light contractions of the circular longitudinal smooth muscles of the esophagus

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44

Muscularis layer:

Outer longitudinal layer

Middle circular layer

Inner oblique layer

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45

Stomach

Is Eolined with simple columnar epithelium

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46

Epithelial Cells in the Stomach

Surface Mucus Cells

Mucous Neck Cells

Parietal Cells

Endocrine Cells

Chief Cells

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47

Surface Mucous Cells

produces mucus that Muprotects the stomach lining

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48

Mucous Neck Cells

produce mucus that lubricates the epithelial cells; protects the stomach walls from the acidic chyme

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49

Parietal Cells

produce hydrochloric acid and intrinsic factor

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50

Hydrochloric Acid

keeps the stomach acidic and this pH (2.0) must be maintained to kill microorganisms and activate the enzyme, pepsin

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Intrinsic Factor

Is needed for the absorption of vitamin B12 (for DNA synthesis RBC production) from the small intestine

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Endocrine Cells

produce regulatory chemicals

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Chief Cells

produce pepsinogen (precursor of pepsin)

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54

Stomach Secretions from other gastric glands

o Mucus o Hydrochloric acid o Intrinsic factor o pepsin

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Chyme

Mixture of food and stomach secretions

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Bolus

Folds in the stomach when it is empty

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True

Approximately 2L of gastric secretions are produced each day

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58

False

When there is an decrease of gastric secretions it results to heartburn or burning sensation in the chest (caused by overconsumption of caffeine or alcohol or fatty food or when you lie down after you eat)

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59

Gastric Secretions

Regulated by both nervous and hormonal mechanisms

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Three phases of Gastric Secretion

cephalic phase

gastric phase

intestinal phase

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61

20 seconds

Movement in the stomach occurs every

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62

Movements in the Stomach

move chyme through the digestive tract, made by smooth muscle contractions in the stomach wall, move chyme toward the pyloric sphincter

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Types of Stomach Movement

Mixing Waves

Peristaltic Wave

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Mixing Waves

relatively weak contractions that mix food with stomach secretions to form chyme F

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False

In mixing waves, the solid part of the chyme is pushed toward the pyloric sphincter while liquid part is pushed back toward the body of the stomach

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Peristaltic Wave

stronger contractions that push the chyme toward and through the pyloric sphincter

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67

False

In peristaltic wave, a few milliliters of fluid chyme is forced through the pyloric sphincter into the jejunum

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True

Most of the chyme is forced back to the stomach to further mix in peristaltic wave

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69

Small Intestine

Approximately 3 meter long; Major site of digestion and absorption

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70

Parts of the Small Intestine

  • Duodenum

  • Ileum

    • Jejunum

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Cell Types in the Small Intestine

Absorptive

Goblet

Granular

Endocrine

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Absorptive Cells

have microvilli and absorb digested food

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Goblet Cells

produce protective mucus

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Granular Cells

protect the epithelium against bacteria

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Endocrine Cells

produce hormones

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Modifications that increase small intestine surface area

Circular Folds

Villi

Microvilli

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Circular Folds

formed by mucosa and submucosa and do not disappear when filled with food

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Secretions of Small Intesine

Mucus

Ions

Water

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79

Small Intestine Secretions

lubricate and protect the intestine from the acidic chyme and action of digestive enzymes.; keep the chyme in the small intestine in a liquid form to facilitate the digestive process.

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80

enzymes

The epithelial cells in the walls of the small intestine have ________, bound to their free surfaces that are significant in the final steps of digestion.

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81

Peptidase

Protein-digesting enzyme

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82

Disaccharidase

Disaccharide-digesting protein

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83

Maltose

broken downby Disaccharidases into the monosaccharide, glucose.

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84

Peristaltic Contractions

proceed along the length of the intestine for variable distances and cause the chyme to move along the small intestine.

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85

Segmental Contractions

are propagated for only short distances and mix intestinal contents.

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86

Structures of the Large Intestine

Cecum

Colon

Rectum

Anal Canal

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87

Cecum

saclike first part of the large intestine that joins the small intestine at the ileocecal junction; 9cm tube that hangs to it which is the appendix

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88

Appendix

Hangs from the cecum

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89

Appendicitis

Accumulation of lymphatic tissue that sometimes becomes inflamed

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90

Colon

Approximately 1.5 to 1.8 meters long

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91

Parts of the Colon

Ascending

Transverse

Descending

Sigmoidal

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92

Anal Canal

Internal Anal Sphincter

External Anal Sphincter

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93

18-24

It takes _____ hours for the material to pass the large intestine

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94

3-5

It takes ____ hours for chyme to pass through small intestine

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95

Functions of the Large Intestine

Eliminates indigestible food from the body as feces

Feces formation

Defecation

Mass movement

Defecation reflex

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96

Defecation

Process of removing waste from the digestive tract

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97

Mass Movement

Several strong contractions that push the contents of the colon to the anus

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98

Liver

Largest internal organ of the body;

Located on the right side of the body under the diaphragm; Produces bile

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99

4

The liver consists of __ lobes

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100

Falciform Ligament

Separates right and left lobe of liver

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