integumentary system

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what does the integumentary system consist of

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140 Terms

1

what does the integumentary system consist of

skin, nails, hair, sweat glands, sebaceous glands

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2

what are the 2 layers of the skin

dermis and epidermis

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3

what are the cells of the epidermis

keratinocytes, melanocytes, dendritic cells, merkel cells

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4

what are keratinocytes

cells that produce keratin

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5

what is keratin

fibrous protein that gives the skin its protective properties

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6

what are melanocytes

cells deep in the epidermis that produce melanin

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7

where do melanosomes transfer to and what do they protect from

they transfer to keratinocytes and they protect from UV damage

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8

what are dendritic cells

immune cells that are deep in the epidermis

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9

what are merkel cells

sensory receptors that sense touch

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10

what is the major cell in the epidermis

keratinocytes

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11

what are the 5 layers of the epidermis

stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, stratum corneum

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12

how thick is the stratum basale

single layer thick

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13

what is the percentage of melanocytes in the stratum basale

10-25%

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14

what does the stratum basale layer do

has 1 row of stem cells that actively divide yielding 2 new cells each time; 1 cell dies and one moves to the top

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15

how thick is the stratum spinosum

several layers thick

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16

what cells is the stratum spinosum abundant in

melanosomes and dendritic cells

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17

what does the stratum spinosum have

prekeratin filaments attached to desmosomes that allow for tension and pulling resistance

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18

how thick is the stratum granulosum

4-6 layers thick but the cells are flattened

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19

what happens in stratum granulosum

cells flatten and keratinization begins

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20

how thick is the stratum corneum

20-30 rows of flat anucleated keratinized dead cells

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21

what does the stratum corneum do

protect deeper cells and abrasions/penetrations, prevents water loss, and is a barrier against biological, chemical, and physical assaults

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22

what are the cells of the dermis

fibroblasts and macrophages

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23

what does the dermis contain

nerves, blood vessels and lymphatic vessels

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24

what are the layers of the dermis

papillary and reticular layer

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25

what is the papillary layer

it is loose collages, elastic fibers and blood vessels

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26

what does the papillary do

allows for phagocyte patrol for microorganisms

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27

what is the reticular layer

coarse dense fibrous connective tissues

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28

which layer is 80% of dermal thickness

reticular layer

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29

what do elastic fiber do in the reticular layer

give stretch recoil properties

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30

what do collagen fibers do in the reticular layer

gives strength

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31

dermal papillae

dermis sends fingerlike projections into epidermis

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32

what does dermal papillae do in thick skin

it gives epidermal ridge -- finger tips

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33

cutaneous plexus

blood vessel between reticular layer and hypodermis

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34

cleavage lines

many collagen fibers running parallel to skin surface

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35

flexure lines

dermal folds near/at joints

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36

what 3 pigments contribute to skin color

melanin, carotene and hemoglobin

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37

what is melanin packed into

melanosomes

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38

where is melanin sent

to shield keratinocyte DNA from UV damage

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39

what are the 2 forms of melanin

reddish yellow to brownish black

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40

what does melanin do

makes skin darker to protect it from UV damage

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41

what is caarotene

a yellow to orange pigment

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42

where does carotene accumulate in

stratum corneum and hypodermis

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43

what does carotene do

converts vitamin a for vision and epidermal health

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44

what does hemoglobin do to skin if there is less melanin present

makes it a fairish pink color

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45

what are the 4 skin color alterations that can indicate disease

cyanosis, pallor, erythema, and jaundice

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46

cyanosis

blue color due to low hemoglobin oxygenation

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47

pallor

pale color due to anemia, LBP, fear

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48

erythema

red color due to inflammation, fever, allergy

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49

jaundice

yellow color due to liver disorders

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50

what is hair

dead keratinized cells

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51

what is the function of hair

warns of insects on skin, head hair guards against physical trauma, protects from heat loss and shields from sunlight

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52

what are the regions of the hair

shaft and root

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53

shaft

area that extends beyond from scalp; keratinization is complete

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54

root

area within scalp; keratinization still happening

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55

where is hair not located

palms, soles, lips, nipples, parts of external genitalia

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56

what are the 3 parts of the hair shaft

medulla, cortex, cuticlem

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57

medulla

central corec

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58

cortex

several layers of flattened cells that surround medulla

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59

cuticle

outer layer

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60

what are hair pigments created by

melanin in hair follicles

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61

where does the hair follicle extend from

dermis to epidermal surface

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62

hair bulb

expanded area at deep end of follice

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63

hair follicle receptor

sensory nerve endings wrapped around bulb

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64

what is the follicle wall composed of

peripheral connective tissue sheath, glassy membrane, epithelial root sheath

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65

peripheral connective tissue sheath is derived from

dermis

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66

glassy membrane

thickened basal lamina

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67

epithelial root sheath derived from

epidermis

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68

hair matrix

actively dividing bulb area that produces hair cells

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69

arrector pili

small band of smooth muscle that attached to follice

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70

what is the arrector pili also known as

goosebumpsh

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71

air papilla

dermal tissue capillaries that supplies nutrients to growing hair

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72

what is vellus hair

pale fine body hair

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73

what is terminal hair

coarse long hair

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74

where can vellus hair be found

on children and adult female

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75

where can terminal hair be found

scalp, eyebrow, axillary and pubic regions

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76

difference between alopecia and true baldness

alopecia is hair thinning after 40, while baldness is genetically determined and sex influencedm

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77

male pattern baldness

follicle response to DHT

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78

nails are

modifications of epidermis that contains hard keratin

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79

what do nails consist of

free edge, nail plate, root

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80

what is the thickened portion of bed that is responsible for nail growth

nail matrix

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81

nail fold

skin fold that overlaps nail border

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82

eponychium

fold that projects onto nail body surfacew

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83

hat is eponychium also known as

cuticle

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84

hyponychium

area under plate free edge that accumulated dirtw

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85

hat causes a nails pink color

underlying capillaries

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86

where are sweat glands located

everywhere except nipples and parts of genitalia

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87

what is sweat glands also know as

sudoriferous

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88

what are the 2 main types of sweat glands

eccrine and apocrine

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89

how do sweat glands do to ducts

by myoepithelial cells contracting and forcing them into ducts

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90

what is the most numerous type of gland

eccrine

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91

where are eccrine glands found

palms, soles, foreheadw

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92

what do eccrine secrete

sweat

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93

what is the function of eccrine glands

thermoregulation

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94

where are apocrine glands found

axillary and anogenital areasw

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95

hat do apocrine glands secrete

viscous milky/yellowish sweat that contains fatty substances and protein

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96

what are modified apocrine glands

ceruminous and mammary

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97

ceruminous glands

line external ear canal and secrete cerumen

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98

mammary glands

secrete milk

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99

where are sebaceous glands found

everywhere except thick skin of palms and soles

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100

sebaceous glands are inactive until

puberty

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