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HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (HRM)

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109 Terms

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HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (HRM)

management of people in organizations through implementing policies, practices and systems that influence employees' behaviour, attitude, and performance; system for the effective management of people in organizations

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HUMAN RESOURCES

people who make up the workforce of an organization

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HUMAN CAPITAL

intangible resources possessed by an organization's workforce (eg. knowledge, skills, attributes)

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The two major stages in the evolution of HR management thinking are?

Personnel management which focuses on administrative tasks

HRM in which it was recognized that organizational success is linked to the operational and strategic management of labour

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There are 5 pieces of knowledge required by HR professionals today:

1. Business acumen

2. An understanding of employment law and legislation

3. Talent management

4. Broad HR knowledge

4. Employee-labour relations knowledge

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6 Core Competencies for those responsible for HR activities

CREDIBLE ACTIVIST- being credible and active in the organization

CULTURE & CHANGE STEWARD- appreciating and shaping an organization's corporate culture and engaging in EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT- the emotional and intellectual involvement of employees in their work

There's a strong positive relationship between employee engagement and organizational performance

HR professionals and line managers play an important role in lowering labour costs

This is the single largest operating expense in many organizations, particularly in the service sector

TALENT MANAGER & ORGANIZATIONAL DESIGNER- effectively managing human resources; lowering labour costs

STRATEGY ARCHITECT- contributing to strategy by integrating internal and external stakeholder expectations

STRATEGY- company's plan for how it will balance its internal strengths and weaknesses with external opportunities and threats to maintain a competitive advantage

OPERATIONAL EXECUTOR- be CHANGE AGENTS (specialists who lead the organization and its employees through organizational change) who lead the organization through organizational change. Carries out basic HR functions such as selection, training and compensation of employees.

BUSINESS ALLY- Organizational goal setting and developing business objectives which are dependent on external opportunities or threats. Understands how the business works, how it achieves success, who its customers are and why customers support what it sells. Understands the language of business.

Involved in ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING (identifying and analyzing external opportunities and threats that may be crucial to the organization's success)

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5 Major Forces Driving Change in HR

1. Changing Technology

2. New Rules

3. Succession Planning

4. Identifying Top Talent

5. A New Breed of HR Leaders

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EMPLOYEE ENGAGEMENT

the emotional and intellectual involvement of employees in their work

There's a strong positive relationship between employee engagement and organizational performance

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ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING

Identifying and analyzing external opportunities and threats that may be crucial to the organization's success

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METRICS

Statistics used to measure activities and results

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BALANCED SCORECARD

measurement system that translates an organization's study into a comprehensive set of performance measures- used to measure impact of HRM

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CERTIFICATION

recognition for having met certain professional standards

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ETHICS

principles of conduct governing an individual/group- standards you used to decide what your conduct should be

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SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY

implied, enforced or felt obligation of managers, acting in their official capacities, to serve or protect the interests of groups other than themselves

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External Environmental Influences on HR

1. Economic conditions

2. Labour Diversity

3. Technology

4. Government

5. Globalization

6. Environment

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Economic Conditions on HR

affect supply and demand for products and services which impact the number and types of employees required and employer's ability to pay wages and provide benefits

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PRODUCTIVITY

ratio of an organization's outputs (goods and services) to its inputs (people, capital, energy and materials)

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3 Sectors of Business

PRIMARY SECTOR- agriculture, fishing, trapping, forestry and mining

SECONDARY SECTOR- manufacturing adn construction

TERTIARY/SERVICE SECTOR- public administration, personal and business services, finance, trade, public utilities and transportation/communication

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DIVERSITY

attributes humans use to tell themselves that someone is different from them

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Labour Market Issues [External]

1. Increasing Market Diversity

2. Generational Issues; Traditionalists, Baby boomers, Gen X and Gen Y

3. Education

4. Non-Standard of Contingent words

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Traditionalists (1922-1945)

Grew up in era of hardship including war and Great Depressions; compliant, hard working, fiscally frugal, risk averse

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Baby Boomers (1946-1964)

Largest group in the workforce; grew up in a time of major optimism and change; optimistic, competitive, team player, politicaly savvy in the workplace

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Gen X (1965-1980)

Grew as divorce rates skyrocketed, first technology-literate generation; independent, tech-literate, creative, individualistic, entrepreneurial

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GenY (1981-2000)

Beginning to enter workforce, expected to change jobs frequently; tech-savvy, expressive and tolerant of differences, innovative and creative, eager to accept challenges

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Non-Standard or Contingent Workers

workers who do not have regular full-time employment status

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Education as a Labour Market Issue [External Environmental Influences on HRM]

inadequate reading and writing skills have replaced lack of experience as the major reason for rejecting entry-level candidates

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GLOBALIZATION [External Environmental Influence on HRM]

Refers to the emergence of a single global market for most products and services; existence of multinational corporations

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TECHNOLOGY [External Environmental Influence on HRM]

Controlling data and privacy

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GOVERNMENT [External Environmental Influence on HRM]

Abiding by provincial and national standards

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3 Internal Environmental Influences

Organizational culture

Organizational climate

Management Practices

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ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE [Internal Environmental Influence on HRM]

core values, beliefs and assumptions that are shared by members of an organization

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ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE [Internal Environmental Influence on HRM]

atmosphere or "internal weather" that exists in an organization

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MANAGEMENT PRACTISES [Internal Environmental Influence on HRM]

now have more EMPLOYEE EMPOWERMENT (providing workers with the skills and authority to make decisions that would traditionally be made by managers)

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EMPLOYEE EMPOWERMENT

providing workers with the skills and authority to make decisions that would traditionally be made by managers

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It is the government's role to balance employer and employee needs through...

development and maintenance of employement legislation

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Hierarchy of Employment Legislation in Canada- 2 Aspects

1. Stare Decisis

2. Precedent

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STARE DECISIS

decisions of a higher court can be the binding authority on a lower court decision in that same JURISDICTION (power to make legal decisions and judgments)

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JURISDICTION

power to make legal decisions and judgments

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PRECEDENT

decision or interpretation of a court of another jurisdiction can act as persuasive authority to how legislation can be interpreted and applied in other jurisdictions

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Multiple Layers of Canadian Legislation Affecting Workplace Practises

[image in Unit 1 Google Doc]

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TORT LAW

judge-based law where precedent and jurisprudence set by one judge through their assessment establishes how similar cases will be interpreted; either intentional (assault, battery, trespass) or unintentional torts (negligence based on events in which harm is caused by carelessness)

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REGULATIONS

legally binding rules established by special regulatory bodies created to enforce compliance with law

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THE CHARTER OF RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS

- Federal legislation that is the cornerstone/guarantees fundamental human rights to all people in Canada

- Represents supreme law

Freedoms

1. Freedom of conscience and religion

2. Freedom of thought, belief, opinion, and expression

3. Freedom of peaceful assembly

4. Freedom of association- unions in workforce

Rights

1. Democratic- votes

2. Mobility

3. Legal

4. Equality

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EQUALITY RIGHTS

Section 15 of the Charter Rights and Freedoms, guarantees the right to equal protection and benefit of the low without discrimination

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Human Rights Legislation + Its Components

Jurisdiction-specific legislation prohibits intentional and unintentional discrimination in employment situations and in the delivery of goods and services.

- Prohibits discrimination in the PUBLIC and PRIVATE sector

Components:

1. Discrimination

2. Permissable discrimination via Bona Fide Occupational Requirements

3. Reasonable Accommodation:

4. Enforcement

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DISCRIMINATION

a distinction, exclusion or preference based on a prohibited ground that can nullify or impair an individual's right to full and equal recognition and exercise of their human rights and freedoms

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PROHIBITED GROUNDS

disability, sex, race, colour, religion, sexual orientation, marital status and age

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INTENTIONAL/DIRECT DISCRIMINATION

can be overt or subtle, deliberately refusing to hire, train or promote an individual on the basis of a protected characteristic

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DIFFERENTIAL/UNEQUAL TREATMENT

treating an individual or group differently in any aspect based on the prohibited grounds

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DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF ASSOCIATION

denial of rights because of friendship/relationship with a protected group member

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UNINTENTIONAL/CONSTRUCTIVE/SYSTEMIC DISCRIMINATION

discrimination embedded in policies/practices that appear neutral on the surface, occurs when a seemingly neutral policy or practise has an unintended negative effect on members of a protected group

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BONA FIDE OCCUPATIONAL REQUIREMENT (BFOR)

Justifiable reason for discrimination based on business necessity/ requirement that can clearly be defended as required by the tasks an employee is expected to perform

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How do you qualify as a BFOR?

1. Question of rationale? Was the policy that led to discrimination legitimate?

2. Question of good faith? Did the decision-makers honestly believe the requirement was necessary?

3. Question of reasonable necessity? Was it impossible to accommodate the discriminated without imposing undue hardship on the employer?

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REASONABLE ACCOMMODATION

Adjustment of employment policies and practices that an employer may be expected to take so that no individual is denied benefits, employment.etc. because of grounds prohibited in human rights legislation

Accomodate to point of undue hardship. modifications to certain rules, standards, policies, resources, physical environments

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DISABILITY

a protected ground in the human rights legislation

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UNDUE HARDSHIP

The point to which employers are expected to accommodate employees under human rights legislative requirements

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DUTY TO ACCOMMODATE

General principles to accommodating persons with disabilities

1. Removal of physical, attitudinal and systemic barriers

2.If there is discrimination, company must demonstrated individualized attempts to accommodate the disability to the point of undue hardship

3. Most appropriate accommodations be undertaken to the point of undue hardship; accommodations are unique, numerous, part of a process and a matter of degree

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Supreme court determined 3 inquires to determine if Discrimination has taken place...

Differential treatment

An ENUMERATED GROUND- condition/clause explicitely protected by legislation

Discrimination in a substantive sense. Does the differential treatment discriminate by putting a burden or withholding a benefit form a person?

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ENUMERATED GROUND

condition/clause explicitely protected by legislation

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HARASSMENT

unwelcome behaviour that demeans, humiliates or embarasses a person and a reasonable person should have known would be unwelcome

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EMPLOYER RESPONSIBILITY

protect employees from harassment

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SEXUAL HARASSMENT

offensive/humiliating behaviour related to a person's sex

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SEXUAL COERCION

harassment of sexual nature that results in direct consequence to worker's employment status/job benefits

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SEXUAL ANNOYANCE

hostile, intimidating but no direct link to tangible job benefits/loss

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Checklist for Employers when Selecting a Workplace Investigator

[On Unit1- Introduction to HRM Google Doc]

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EMPLOYER'S OBLIGATION

1. Demonstrate awareness of discrimination/harassment and include antidiscrimination/harassment policy

2. Fulfill post complaint actions: assess seriousness, launch investigation, employee welfar

3. Resolve complaint

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SYSTEMIC REMEDIES (forward-looking

respondent takes positive steps to ensure they follow policies

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RESTITUTIONAL REMEDIES

monetary compensation to put the complainant back to their position if the discrimination didn't happen

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EMPLOYMENT EQUITY LEGISLATION

Legislation specific to the workplace

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OCCUPATIONAL SEGREGATION

the existence of certain occupations that are traditionally male-dominated while others are female-dominated

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GLASS CEILING

imaginary barrier caused by attitudes, bias that limits the advancement opportunities of qualified group members

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EMPLOYMENT EQUITY PROGRAM

a detailed plan designed to identify and correct existing discrimination

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The Plight of the 4 Designated Groups

Women- EQUAL PAY FOR EQUAL WORK

Aboriginals

People with Disabilities

Visible Minorities- UNDEREMPLOYMENT (employed in job that doesn't fully utilize their Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSAs)

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EMPLOYMENT (LABOUR) STANDARDS LEGISLATION

complaint based; laws establish minimum employee entitlements and set a limit on the max work hours per day/week

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HRM TRADITIONAL

Operational function, largely administrative- day to day operations

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HRM EVOLVING

- serve operational and STRATEGIC FUNCTION, align employee's efforts with the organization's strategic goals

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STRATEGY

Specific financial and non-financial results an organization hopes to achieve

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EMPLOYEE RETENTION

Ability of an organization to keep its employees

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CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY (CSR) & HRM

Maintain a balance between pursuing profitability and acting in a manner that benefits society, increases profitability, inproved reputation, greater customer loyalty

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COPORATE CULTURE

- identity of the organization

- core values, beliefs and norms widely shared by members

- clarifies standards of behaviour

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CORPORATE CLIMATE

- perceived general atmosphere within an organization

- affected by leadership style, HR policies, communication

- has an impact on employee motivation, productivity, job performance, job satisfaction

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Benefits of Effective HRM

1. Reduced cost; less rehiring

2. Greater engagement; emotinal commitment ot organizational goals, intensity, focus and dedication

3. Better performance; better products, employee performance, increased profits

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EVIDENCE-BASED HR

-evaluating human resources practises against data

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KEY COMPONENTS OF A STUDY

1. Research Question

2. Hypothesis

3. Variables

4. Methods

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RESEARCH QUESTION

Question that a researcher sets out to answer, guides the research process

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HYPOTHESIS

Educated prediction made on basis of prior knowledge

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VARIABLES

Attributes, characteristic, phenomenon that researchers aim to study that are MEASURABLE

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RESEARCH STUDY METHODS (2)

1. PRIMARY- generating new information regarding a research question; true experiments, quasi experiments, surveys

2. SECONDARY; examine existing information from studies that used primary methods

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TRUE EXPERIMENTS (PRIMARY METHOD)

Assess whether IV has effect on DV

In controlled settings

Participants are randomly assigned

All participants are measured on the DV

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PROS OF TRUE EXPERIMENTS

Can create causal conclusions

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CONS OF TRUE EXPERIMENTS

Difficult to generalize findings to the real world

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QUASI EXPERIMENTS (PRIMARY METHOD)

Assess whether IV has an effect on DV

Conducted in field- natural setting

Groups of participants that represent levels of IV are selected

All participants are measured on the DV

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PROS OF QUASI EXPERIMENTS

results are more applicable to the real world- easier

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CONS OF QUASI EXPERIMENTS

Causal conclusions not recommended bc there are too many VARIABLES

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SURVEYS (PRIMARY METHOD)

Assess whether there is a relationship between two variables

Questionnaires are administered to participants

Variables of interest are measured via the questionnaires

Analyses carried out to see if scores on the questionnaires are related

No distinction between IV and DV

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CORRELATION

Provides info on DIRECTION& STRENGTH of a relationship between 2 variables- values between -1 and 1

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NEGATIVE CORRELATION COEFFICIENT

Negative slope

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POSTIVE CORRELATOIN COEFFICIENT

Value about zero that is sloping upwards

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STRENGTH OF CORRELATION COEFFICIENT

Weak= 0.10

Moderate= 0.30

Strong= 0.50

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SPURIOUS RELATIONSHIP

2 variables appear to be related but they aren't; coincidence

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